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CDRECORD(1)		    Schily's USER COMMANDS		   CDRECORD(1)

NAME
       cdrecord	 -  record  audio  or  data Compact Disks or Digital Versatile
       Disks from a master

SYNOPSIS
       cdrecord	 [  general  options  ]	  dev=device   [   track   options   ]
       track1...trackn

DESCRIPTION
       Cdrecord	 is  used  to  record data or audio Compact Discs on an	Orange
       Book CD-Recorder	or to write DVD	media on a DVD-Recorder.

       The device refers to scsibus/target/lun of the CD/DVD-Recorder.	Commu-
       nication	 on  SunOS  is	done  with the SCSI general driver scg.	 Other
       operating systems are using a library simulation	of this	driver.	  Pos-
       sible  syntax  is:  dev=	scsibus,target,lun or dev= target,lun.	In the
       latter case, the	CD/DVD-Recorder	has to be  connected  to  the  default
       SCSI  bus of the	machine.  Scsibus, target and lun are integer numbers.
       Some operating systems or SCSI transport	implementations	may require to
       specify	a  filename  in	addition.  In this case	the correct syntax for
       the device  is:	dev=  devicename:scsibus,target,lun  or	 dev=  device-
       name:target,lun.	  If  the name of the device node that has been	speci-
       fied on such a system refers to exactly one SCSI	device,	a shorthand in
       the form	dev= devicename:@ or dev= devicename:@,lun may be used instead
       of dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun.

       To access remote	SCSI devices, you need to prepend the SCSI device name
       by  a  remote  device  indicator. The remote device indicator is	either
       REMOTE:user@host: or  REMOTE:host:
       A valid remote SCSI device name	may  be:  REMOTE:user@host:  to	 allow
       remote  SCSI  bus scanning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the SCSI
       device at host connected	to SCSI	bus # 1,target 0 lun 0.

       Cdrecord	is completely based on SCSI commands but this is no problem as
       all  CD/DVD  writers ever made use SCSI commands	for the	communication.
       Even ATAPI drives are just SCSI drives  that  inherently	 use  the  ATA
       packet  interface  as  SCSI  command transport layer build into the IDE
       (ATA) transport.	 You may need to specify an alternate transport	 layer
       on  the	command	 line if your OS does not implement a fully integrated
       kernel driver subsystem that allows to access any drive using SCSI com-
       mands via a single unique user interface.

       To  access  SCSI	 devices  via  alternate transport layers, you need to
       prepend the SCSI	device name  by	 a  transport  layer  indicator.   The
       transport  layer	 indicator may be something like USCSI:	or ATAPI:.  To
       get a list of supported transport layers	for your  platform,  use  dev=
       HELP:

       To  make	cdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev= devi-
       cename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as it hides OS  specific	knowl-
       edge about device names from the	user.  A specific OS may not necessar-
       ily support a way to specify a real device file name nor	a way to spec-
       ify scsibus,target,lun.

       Scsibus	0  is the default SCSI bus on the machine. Watch the boot mes-
       sages for more information or look into	/var/run/dmesg.boot  for  more
       information  about the SCSI configuration of your machine.  If you have
       problems	to figure out what values  for	scsibus,target,lun  should  be
       used, try the -scanbus option of	cdrecord described below.

       If  a  file  /usr/local/etc/cdrecord  exists, the parameter to the dev=
       option may also be a drive name label in	said file (see FILES section).

       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses	the real time class to get the
       highest scheduling priority that	is possible (higher  than  all	kernel
       processes).   On	 systems with POSIX real time scheduling cdrecord uses
       real time scheduling too, but may not be	able to	gain a	priority  that
       is higher than all kernel processes.

       In  order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem	of the OS, run
       at highest priority and lock itself into	core cdrecord either needs  to
       be  run	as root, needs to be installed suid root or must be called via
       RBACs pfexec mechanism.

       In Track	At Once	mode, each track corresponds to	 a  single  file  that
       contains	 the  prepared	data  for that track.  If the argument is `-',
       standard	input is used for that track.  Only one	 track	may  be	 taken
       from  stdin.   In the other write modes,	the direct file	to track rela-
       tion may	not be implemented.  In	-clone mode, a	single	file  contains
       all data	for the	whole disk.  To	allow DVD writing on platforms that do
       not implement large file	support, cdrecord concatenates all file	 argu-
       ments to	a single track when writing to DVD media.

GENERAL	OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track	file name or track option.

       -version
	      Print version information	and exit.

       -v     Increment	 the  level of general verbosity by one.  This is used
	      e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment	the verbose level in respect of	SCSI command transport
	      by  one.	 This  helps  to  debug	 problems  during  the writing
	      process, that occur in the CD/DVD-Recorder.  If you  get	incom-
	      prehensible  error messages you should use this flag to get more
	      detailed output.	-VV will show data buffer content in addition.
	      Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be	the reason for
	      a	buffer underrun.

       debug=#,	-d
	      Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#)  or	increment  the
	      misc  debug  level  by  one  (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
	      equals to	debug=2.  This may help	to find	problems while opening
	      a	 driver	 for  libscg  as  well as with sector sizes and	sector
	      types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may be the  rea-
	      son for a	buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
	      Tell  the	scg-driver to modify the kernel	debug value while SCSI
	      commands are running.

       -silent,	-s
	      Do not print out a status	report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force to continue	on some	errors.	Be  careful  when  using  this
	      option.	Cdrecord  implements  several  checks that prevent you
	      from doing unwanted things like damaging CD-RW media by improper
	      drives.  Many  of	the sanity checks are disabled when the	-force
	      option is	used.

	      This option also implements some tricks that will	allow  you  to
	      blank bad	CD-RW disks.

       -immed Tell  cdrecord  to  set  the SCSI	IMMED flag in certain commands
	      (load/eject/blank/close_track/close_session).  This can be  use-
	      ful  on  broken systems with ATAPI harddisk and CD/DVD writer on
	      the same bus  or	with  SCSI  systems  that  don't  use  discon-
	      nect/reconnect.	These  systems	will  freeze while blanking or
	      fixating a CD/DVD	or while a DVD writer is filling up a  session
	      to the minimum amount (approx. 800 MB).  Setting the -immed flag
	      will request the command to return immediately while the	opera-
	      tion proceeds in background, making the bus usable for the other
	      devices and avoiding the system freeze.  This is an experimental
	      feature  which  may  work	 or not, depending on the model	of the
	      CD/DVD writer.  A	correct	solution would be to set up a  correct
	      cabling but there	seem to	be notebooks around that have been set
	      up the wrong way by the manufacturer.  As	it  is	impossible  to
	      fix this problem in notebooks, the -immed	option has been	added.

	      A	second experimental feature of the  -immed  flag  is  to  tell
	      cdrecord	to try to wait short times while writing to the	media.
	      This is expected to free the IDE bus if the  CD/DVD  writer  and
	      the  data	 source	 are  connected	to the same IDE	cable. In this
	      case, the	CD/DVD writer would otherwise usually  block  the  IDE
	      bus  for	nearly all the time making it impossible to fetch data
	      from the source drive. See also minbuf= and -v option.

	      Use both features	at your	own risk.  If it  turns	 out  that  it
	      would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
	      write to the author and convince him.

       minbuf=value
	      The # minbuf= option allows to define the	minimum	 drive	buffer
	      fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
	      to free the IDE bus to allow hard	disk and CD/DVD	writer	to  be
	      on  the  same  IDE cable.	 As the	wait mode currently only works
	      when the verbose option -v has been specified, cdrecord  implies
	      the  verbose  option  in	case the -immed	or minbuf= option have
	      been specified.  Valid values for	minbuf=	are between 25 and  95
	      for 25%...95% minimum drive buffer fill ratio.

       -dummy The  CD/DVD-Recorder  will go through all	steps of the recording
	      process, but the laser is	turned off during this procedure.   It
	      is recommended to	run several tests before actually writing to a
	      Compact Disk or Digital Versatile	Disk, if the timing  and  load
	      response of the system is	not known.

       -clone Tells  cdrecord  to handle images	created	by readcd -clone.  The
	      -clone may only be used in conjunction with with the -raw96r  or
	      with  the	 -raw16	option.	 Using -clone together with -raw96r is
	      preferred	as it allows to	write all subchannel data.  The	option
	      -raw16  should  only  be used with drives	that do	not support to
	      write in -raw96r mode.

       -dao

       -sao   Set SAO (Session At Once)	mode which is usually called  Disk  At
	      Once  mode.  This	currently only works with MMC drives that sup-
	      port Session At Once mode.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the
	      size  of	each  track  in	advance	for this mode (see the mkisofs
	      -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section  for	more  informa-
	      tion).

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At	Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
	      mode in previous cdrecord	 versions.   With  most	 drives,  this
	      write mode is required for multi session recording.

       -raw   Set  RAW	writing	 mode.	Using this option defaults to -raw96r.
	      Note that	cdrecord needs to know	the  size  of  each  track  in
	      advance  for  this  mode (see the	mkisofs	-print-size option and
	      the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
	      Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
	      of  raw  P-W  subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
	      bytes.  This is the preferred raw	writing	mode as	it gives  best
	      control  over  the CD writing process.  If you find any problems
	      with the layout of a disk	or  with  sub  channel	content	 (e.g.
	      wrong  times  on the display when	playing	the CD)	and your drive
	      supports to write	in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should give  it
	      a	 try.  There  are  several  CD	writers	with bad firmware that
	      result in	broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO	mode.  Writing
	      data  disks  in  raw mode	needs significantly more CPU time than
	      other write modes. If your CPU is	too slow, this may  result  in
	      buffer  underruns.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the size of
	      each track in advance for	this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size
	      option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
	      Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
	      of packed	P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
	      bytes.   This  is	 the less preferred raw	writing	mode as	only a
	      few recorders support it and some	of these recorders  have  bugs
	      in  the  firmware	 implementation.   Don't use this mode if your
	      recorder supports	-raw96r	or -raw16.  Writing data disks in  raw
	      mode  needs  significantly more CPU time than other write	modes.
	      If your CPU is too slow, this may	result	in  buffer  underruns.
	      Note  that  cdrecord  needs  to  know  the size of each track in
	      advance for this mode (see the mkisofs  -print-size  option  and
	      the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes
	      of P-Q subchannel	data resulting in a sector size	of 2368	bytes.
	      If  a  recorder  does not	support	-raw96r, this is the preferred
	      raw writing mode.	  It  does  not	 allow	to  write  CD-Text  or
	      CD+Graphics  but	it  is	the  only raw writing mode in cheap CD
	      writers.	As these cheap writers in most cases  do  not  support
	      -dao  mode.   Don't  use	this  mode  if	your recorder supports
	      -raw96r.	Writing	data disks in  raw  mode  needs	 significantly
	      more  CPU	 time than other write modes. If your CPU is too slow,
	      this may result in buffer	underruns.  Note that  cdrecord	 needs
	      to know the size of each track in	advance	for this mode (see the
	      mkisofs -print-size option and the  EXAMPLES  section  for  more
	      information).

       -multi Allow  multi  session  CDs  to  be  made.	 This flag needs to be
	      present on all sessions of a multi session disk, except you want
	      to  create a session that	will be	the last session on the	media.
	      The fixation will	be done	in  a  way  that  allows  the  CD/DVD-
	      Recorder	to  append  additional sessions	later. This is done by
	      generation a TOC with a link to the next program	area.  The  so
	      generated	 media	is  not	 100%  compatible  to manufactured CDs
	      (except for CDplus).  Use	only for recording  of	multi  session
	      CDs.   If	 this option is	present, the default track type	is CD-
	      ROM XA mode 2 form 1 and the sector size is 2048 bytes.  The  XA
	      sector subheaders	will be	created	by the drive.  The Sony	drives
	      have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1.  You  have
	      to  specify  the	-data  option in order to create multi session
	      disks on these drives.  As long as  cdrecord  does  not  have  a
	      coder  for converting data sectors to audio sectors, you need to
	      force CD-ROM sectors by including	the -data option if  you  like
	      to record	a multisession disk in SAO mode.  Not all drives allow
	      multisession CDs in SAO mode.

       -msinfo
	      Retrieve multi session info in a form suitable for  mkisofs-1.10
	      or later.

	      This  option  makes  only	sense with a CD	that contains at least
	      one closed session and is	appendable (not	finally	 closed	 yet).
	      Some  drives  create  error messages if you try to get the multi
	      session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -toc   Retrieve	and  print  out	 the  table of content or PMA of a CD.
	      With this	option,	cdrecord will work with	CD-R drives  and  with
	      CD-ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve	and  print  out	the ATIP (absolute Time	in Pre-groove)
	      info of a	CD/DVD recordable or CD/DVD re-writable	 media.	  With
	      this option, cdrecord will try to	retrieve the ATIP info.	If the
	      actual drive does	not support to read the	ATIP info, it  may  be
	      that  only  a reduced set	of information records or even nothing
	      is displayed. Only a limited number of MMC compliant drives sup-
	      port to read the ATIP info.

	      If  cdrecord  is able to retrieve	the lead-in start time for the
	      first session, it	will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
	      info  from  the media.  DVD media	does not have ATIP information
	      but there	is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
	      and printed.

       -fix   The  disk	 will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a	CD-Reader will
	      be written).  This may be	used, if for some reason the disk  has
	      been  written  but  not  fixated.	This option currently does not
	      work with	old TEAC drives	(CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the	disk after writing the	tracks.	 This  may  be
	      used  to	create	an audio disk in steps.	An un-fixated disk can
	      usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive	but there  are
	      audio CD players that will be able to play such a	disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to	become available on standard input before try-
	      ing to open the SCSI driver. This	allows cdrecord	to  read  it's
	      input  from  a  pipe  even when writing additional sessions to a
	      multi session disk.  When	writing	another	 session  to  a	 multi
	      session  disk,  mkisofs  needs  to read the old session from the
	      device before writing output.  This cannot be done  if  cdrecord
	      opens the	SCSI driver at the same	time.

       -load  Load  the	 media	and  exit. This	only works with	a tray loading
	      mechanism	but seems to be	 useful	 when  using  the  Kodak  disk
	      transporter.

       -lock  Load  the	 media,	lock the door and exit.	This only works	with a
	      tray loading mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the
	      Kodak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing	the work.  Some	devices	(e.g. Philips)
	      need to eject the	medium before creating a  new  disk.  Doing  a
	      -dummy  test and immediately creating a real disk	would not work
	      on these devices.

       speed=#
	      Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.	 # is an inte-
	      ger,  representing a multiple of the audio speed.	 This is about
	      150 KB/s for CD-ROM,  about  172 KB/s  for  CD-Audio  and	 about
	      1385 kB/s	 for  DVD  media.   If	no  speed  option  is present,
	      cdrecord will try	to get a drive specific	speed value  from  the
	      file  /usr/local/etc/cdrecord and	if it cannot find one, it will
	      try to get the speed value from the  CDR_SPEED  environment  and
	      later  from the CDR_SPEED= entry in /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.  If
	      no speed value could be found, cdrecord uses  a  drive  specific
	      default  speed.	The default for	all new	(MMC compliant)	drives
	      is to use	the maximum  supported	by  the	 drive.	  If  you  use
	      speed=0  with a MMC compliant drive, cdrecord will switch	to the
	      lowest possible speed for	drive and medium.  If you are using an
	      old  (non	 MMC) drive that has problems with speed=2 or speed=4,
	      you should try speed=0.

       blank=type
	      Blank a CD-RW and	exit or	blank  a  CD-RW	 before	 writing.  The
	      blanking type may	be one of:

	      help	  Display a list of possible blanking types.

	      all	  Blank	the entire disk. This may take a long time.

	      fast	  Minimally  blank  the	 disk. This results in erasing
			  the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

	      track	  Blank	a track.

	      unreserve	  Unreserve a reserved track.

	      trtail	  Blank	the tail of a track.

	      unclose	  Unclose last session.

	      session	  Blank	the last session.
       Not all drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary  to  use
       blank=all  if a drive reports a specified command as being invalid.  If
       used together with the -force flag, this	option may be  used  to	 blank
       CD-RW disks that	otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you may need to
       specify blank=all because some drives will not  continue	 with  certain
       types of	bad CD-RW disks. Note also that	cdrecord does it's best	if the
       -force flag is used but it finally  depends  on	the  drive's  firmware
       whether the blanking operation will succeed or not.

       -format
	      Format a CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW disc.  Formatting is	currently only
	      implemented for DVD+RW media.  A 'maiden'	DVD+RW media needs  to
	      be  formatted  before you	may write to it.  However, as cdrecord
	      autodetects the need for formatting in this case and  auto  for-
	      mats  the	medium before it starts	writing, the -format option is
	      only needed if you like to forcibly reformat a DVD+RW medium.

       fs=#   Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syn-
	      tax as in	dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the
	      size is taken in bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a	number
	      is  followed  directly  by the letter `b', `k', `m', `s' or `f',
	      the size is multiplied by	512, 1024, 1024*1024,  2048  or	 2352.
	      If  the size consists of numbers separated by `x'	or `*',	multi-
	      plication	of the two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k  will
	      specify a	FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

	      The  size	specified by the fs= argument includes the shared mem-
	      ory that is needed for administration. This is at	least one page
	      of  memory.   If	no fs= option is present, cdrecord will	try to
	      get the FIFO size	value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.   The
	      default FIFO size	is currently 4 MB.

	      The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real time writing
	      process.	It allows to run a pipe	 from  mkisofs	directly  into
	      cdrecord.	  If  the  FIFO	is active and a	pipe from mkisofs into
	      cdrecord is used to create a CD, cdrecord	will abort prior to do
	      any  modifications  on the disk if mkisofs dies before it	starts
	      writing.	The recommended	FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes.
	      As  a  rule  of thumb, the FIFO size should be at	least equal to
	      the size of the internal buffer of the  CD/DVD-Recorder  and  no
	      more  than  half	of the physical	amount of RAM available	in the
	      machine.	If the FIFO size is big	enough,	 the  FIFO  statistics
	      will  print  a FIFO empty	count of zero and the FIFO min fill is
	      not below	20%.  It is not	wise to	use too	 much  space  for  the
	      FIFO.  If	 you need more than 8 MB to write a CD at a speed less
	      than 20x from an image  on  a  local  file  system  on  an  idle
	      machine, your machine is either underpowered, has	hardware prob-
	      lems or is mis-configured.  If you like  to  write  DVDs	or  to
	      write  CDs at higher speed, it makes sense to use	at least 16 MB
	      for the FIFO.

	      On old and small machines, you need to be	more careful with  the
	      FIFO  size.   If	your  machine has less than 256	MB of physical
	      RAM, you should not set up a FIFO	size that is more than	32 MB.
	      The sun4c	architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
	      table  entries  for  16 MBytes  per  process.  Using  more  than
	      14 MBytes	 for  the  FIFO	may cause the operating	system in this
	      case to spend much time to constantly  reload  the  MMU  tables.
	      Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware problem. I
	      have no information on PC-hardware reflecting this problem.

	      Old Linux	systems	for non	x86 platforms have broken  definitions
	      for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
	      kernel or	manually tell cdrecord to use a	smaller	FIFO.

	      If you have buffer underruns or similar problems	(like  a  con-
	      stantly empty drive buffer) and observe a	zero fifo empty	count,
	      you have hardware	problems that prevents the data	 from  flowing
	      fast  enough  from the kernel memory to the drive. The FIFO size
	      in this case is sufficient, but you should check for  a  working
	      DMA setup.

       ts=#   Set  the	maximum	 transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.
	      The syntax for the ts= option is the same	as for	cdrecord  fs=#
	      or sdd bs=#.

	      If  no  ts=  option  has	been specified,	cdrecord defaults to a
	      transfer size of 63 kB. If libscg	gets  lower  values  from  the
	      operating	system,	the value is reduced to	the maximum value that
	      is possible with the current operating  system.	Sometimes,  it
	      may  help	 to further reduce the transfer	size or	to enhance it,
	      but note that it may take	a long time to find a better value  by
	      experimenting with the ts= option.

       dev=target
	      Sets  the	 SCSI target for the CD/DVD-Recorder, see notes	above.
	      A	typical	device specification is	dev=6,0	.  If a	filename  must
	      be  provided  together  with the numerical target	specification,
	      the filename is implementation specific.	The  correct  filename
	      in  this case can	be found in the	system specific	manuals	of the
	      target operating system.	On a FreeBSD system without  CAM  sup-
	      port,  you need to use the control device	(e.g.  /dev/rcd0.ctl).
	      A	 correct  device   specification   in	this   case   may   be
	      dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

	      On Linux,	drives connected to a parallel port adapter are	mapped
	      to a virtual SCSI	bus. Different adapters	are mapped to  differ-
	      ent targets on this virtual SCSI bus.

	      If no dev	option is present, cdrecord will try to	get the	device
	      from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

	      If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the  charac-
	      ters  ',',  '/',	'@' or ':', it is interpreted as an label name
	      that may be found	in the file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord (see FILES
	      section).

       gracetime=#
	      Set  the grace time before starting to write to #	seconds.  Val-
	      ues below	2 seconds are not allowed.

       timeout=#
	      Set the default SCSI command timeout value to  #	seconds.   The
	      default  SCSI  command  timeout  is the minimum timeout used for
	      sending SCSI commands.  If a SCSI	command	fails due to  a	 time-
	      out, you may try to raise	the default SCSI command timeout above
	      the timeout value	of the failed command.	If  the	 command  runs
	      correctly	 with a	raised command timeout,	please report the bet-
	      ter timeout value	and the	corresponding command to the author of
	      the program.  If no timeout option is present, a default timeout
	      of 40 seconds is used.

       driver=name
	      Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
	      reason  for  the existence of the	driver=name option is to allow
	      users to use cdrecord with drives	that are similar to  supported
	      drives  but  not	known  directly	 by cdrecord.  All drives made
	      after 1997 should	be MMC standard	compliant and  thus  supported
	      by one of	the MMC	drivers.  It is	most unlikely that cdrecord is
	      unable to	find the right driver automatically.  Use this	option
	      with  extreme  care. If a	wrong driver is	used for a device, the
	      possibility of creating corrupted	disks is  high.	  The  minimum
	      problem  related	to a wrong driver is that the -speed or	-dummy
	      will not work.

	      The following driver names are supported:

	      help   To	get a list of possible drivers together	with  a	 short
		     description.

	      mmc_cd The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds a MMC compliant drive  that  does
		     not  identify  itself  to support writing at all, or that
		     only identifies to	 support  media	 or  write  modes  not
		     implemented in cdrecord.

	      mmc_cd_dvd
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD/DVD  driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds a MMC-2 or	MMC-3 compliant	 drive
		     that  seems  to support more than one medium type and the
		     tray is open or no	medium could be	found  to  select  the
		     right  driver.   This  driver  tries  to  close the tray,
		     checks the	medium found in	the tray and then branches  to
		     the driver	that matches the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord find a MMC compliant  drive  that  only
		     supports  to  write CDs or	a multi	system drive that con-
		     tains a CD	as the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr_sony
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	 would	otherwise  select  the mmc_cdr
		     driver but	the device seems to  be	 made  by  Sony.   The
		     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely	needed for the Sony CDU	928 as
		     this drive	does not completely implement the MMC standard
		     and  some of the MMC SCSI commands	have to	be replaced by
		     Sony proprietary commands.	It seems that all Sony	drives
		     (even  newer  ones)  still	implement the Sony proprietary
		     SCSI commands so it has not yet become a problem  to  use
		     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
		     drive that	does not work with this	driver,	please report.

	      mmc_dvd
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-2	 DVD-R/DVD-RW  driver is auto-
		     selected whenever cdrecord	finds a	MMC-2 or MMC-3 compli-
		     ant  drive	that supports to write DVDs and	an appropriate
		     medium is loaded.	There is no Track At Once mode for DVD
		     writers.

	      mmc_dvdplus
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3	 DVD+R/DVD+RW  driver is auto-
		     selected whenever one of the DVD+ media  types  that  are
		     incompatible to each other	is found.  It checks media and
		     then branches to the  driver  that	 matches  the  current
		     medium.

	      mmc_dvdplusr
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3	 DVD+R driver is auto-selected
		     whenever a	 DVD+R	medium	is  found  in  an  appropriate
		     writer.   Note  that  for	unknown	 reason,  the DVD-Plus
		     alliance does not like that there is  a  simulation  mode
		     for  DVD+R	 media.	  The author of	cdrecord tries to con-
		     vince manufacturers to implement a	 simulation  mode  for
		     DVD+R  and	 implement  support.   DVD+R only supports one
		     write mode	that is	somewhere between Track	 At  Once  and
		     Packet  writing;  this mode is selected in	cdrecord via a
		     the -dao/-sao option.

	      mmc_dvdplusrw
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  a  DVD+RW  medium  is  found  in	an appropriate
		     writer.  As DVD+RW	media needs  to	 be  formatted	before
		     it's  first  use,	cdrecord auto-detects this media state
		     and performs a format before it starts  to	 write.	  Note
		     that  for	unknown	reason,	the DVD-Plus alliance does not
		     like that there is	a simulation mode nor a	way  to	 erase
		     DVD+RW  media.   DVD+RW only supports one write mode that
		     is	close to Packet	writing;  this	mode  is  selected  in
		     cdrecord via a the	-dao/-sao option.

	      cw_7501
		     The  driver  for  Matsushita/Panasonic  CW-7501  is auto-
		     selected when cdrecord finds  this	 old  pre  MMC	drive.
		     Cdrecord supports all write modes for this	drive type.

	      kodak_pcd_600
		     The  driver  for  Kodak  PCD-600  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord finds this old pre MMC drive which has been  the
		     first  high  speed	 (6x)  CD writer for a long time. This
		     drive behaves similar to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

	      philips_cdd521
		     The driver	for  Philips  CDD-521  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  a	 Philips  CDD-521  drive (which	is the
		     first CD writer ever made)	or one	of  the	 other	drives
		     that  are	known  to  behave  similar to this drive.  All
		     Philips CDD-521 or	similar	drives (see other  drivers  in
		     this list)	do not support Session At Once recording.

	      philips_cdd521_old
		     The  driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-521 with very	 old  firmware
		     which has some known limitations.

	      philips_cdd522
		     The  driver  for  Philips	CDD-522	 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-522 which is	the  successor
		     of	 the  521  or  one  of it's variants with Kodak	label.
		     Cdrecord does not support Session At Once recording  with
		     these drives.

	      philips_dumb
		     The  driver  for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assump-
		     tions is never auto-selected.  It may  be	used  by  hand
		     with drives that behave similar to	the Philips CDD-521.

	      pioneer_dws114x
		     The  driver  for  Pioneer	DW-S114X is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds one	of the old non	MMC  CD	 writers  from
		     Pioneer.

	      plasmon_rf4100
		     The  driver  for  Plasmon	RF  4100 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds  this  specific  variant  of  the  Philips
		     CDD-521.

	      ricoh_ro1060c
		     The  driver  for  Ricoh  RO-1060C	is  auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds this drive.	There is no real  support  for
		     this drive	yet.

	      ricoh_ro1420c
		     The  driver  for  Ricoh  RO-1420C	is  auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a drive with this specific variant of  the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      scsi2_cd
		     The  generic  SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver	is auto-selected when-
		     ever cdrecord finds a pre MMC drive that does not support
		     writing  or  a  pre  MMC  writer that is not supported by
		     cdrecord.

	      sony_cdu924
		     The driver	for Sony CDU-924 /  CDU-948  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds one of the	old pre	MMC CD writers
		     from Sony.

	      teac_cdr50
		     The driver	for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S,	JVC  XR-W2010,
		     Pinnacle  RCD-5020	 is  auto-selected whenever one	of the
		     drives is found that is known to the non MMC command  set
		     used  by  TEAC  and  JVC.	Note that many drives from JVC
		     will not work because they	do not correctly implement the
		     documented	 command set and JVC has been unwilling	to fix
		     or	document the bugs.  There is no	support	for  the  Ses-
		     sion At Once write	mode yet.

	      tyuden_ew50
		     The  driver  for  Taiyo Yuden EW-50 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a drive with this specific variant of  the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      yamaha_cdr100
		     The  driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is auto-selected
		     when cdrecord finds one of	the old	 pre  MMC  CD  writers
		     from Yamaha.  There is no support for the Session At Once
		     write mode	yet.

	      cdr_simul
		     The simulation CD-R driver	allows to run timing and speed
		     tests with	parameters that	match the behavior of CD writ-
		     ers.

	      dvd_simul
		     The simulation DVD-R driver  allows  to  run  timing  and
		     speed  tests  with	 parameters that match the behavior of
		     DVD writers.

	      There are	two special driver entries in the list:	cdr_simul  and
	      dvd_simul.   These  driver  entries  are designed	to make	timing
	      tests at any speed or timing tests for drives that do  not  sup-
	      port  the	 -dummy	 option.   The	simulation drivers implement a
	      drive with a buffer size of 1 MB that can	 be  changed  via  the
	      CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE	 environment  variable.	 The simulation	driver
	      correctly	simulates even a buffer	underrun  condition.   If  the
	      -dummy  option is	present, the simulation	is not aborted in case
	      of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
	      Set driver specific options. The options are specified  a	 comma
	      separated	  list.	   To	get   a	 list  of  valid  options  use
	      driveropts=help together with the	-checkdrive  option.   If  you
	      like  to	set  driver options without running a typical cdrecord
	      task, you	need to	use the	-setdropts option in addition,	other-
	      wise  the	 command  line parser in cdrecord will complain.  Cur-
	      rently implemented driver	options	are:

	      burnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer  Underrun  Free  writing  on.
		     This  only	 works for drives that support Buffer Underrun
		     Free technology.  This may	be called:  Sanyo  BURN-Proof,
		     Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

		     The  default  is to turn BURN-Free	off, regardless	of the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noburnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

	      varirec=value
		     Turn on the Plextor VariRec writing mode.	The  mandatory
		     parameter	value  is the laser power offset and currently
		     may be selected from -2, -1, 0, 1,	2.  In	addition,  you
		     need  to  set  the	 write	speed  to  4 in	order to allow
		     VariRec to	work.

	      audiomaster
		     Turn on the Yamaha	Audio Master Q.	R.  feature which usu-
		     ally  should  result  in  high quality CDs	that have less
		     reading problems in Hi-Fi players.	  As  this  is	imple-
		     mented as a variant of the	Session	at Once	write mode, it
		     will only work if you select SAO write mode and there  is
		     no	 need to turn it off.  The Audio Master	mode will work
		     with a limited speed but may also be used with data  CDs.
		     In	 Audio Master mode, the	pits on	the CD will be written
		     larger then usual	so  the	 capacity  of  the  medium  is
		     reduced  when  turning  this  feature on.	A 74 minute CD
		     will only have a capacity of 63 minutes if	 Audio	Master
		     is	 active	 and  the  capacity  of	a 80 minute CD will be
		     reduced to	68 minutes.

	      forcespeed
		     Normally, modern drives know the highest  possible	 speed
		     for  different media and may reduce the speed in order to
		     grant best	write quality.	This technology	may be called:
		     Plextor  PowerRec,	Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum Write
		     Speed Control or similar.	 Some  drives  (e.g.  Plextor,
		     Ricoh  and	 Yamaha)  allow	 to force the drive to use the
		     selected speed even if the	medium	is  so	bad  that  the
		     write  quality  would  be	poor. This option tells	such a
		     drive to force to use the selected	 speed	regardless  of
		     the medium	quality.

		     Use this option with extreme care and note	that the drive
		     should know better	which medium will work at full	speed.
		     The  default is to	turn forcespeed	off, regardless	of the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noforcespeed
		     Turn off the force	speed feature.

	      speedread
		     Some ultra	high speed  drives  such  as  48x  and	faster
		     drives  from  Plextor  limit  the	read speed for unknown
		     media to e.g. 40x in order	to  avoid  damaged  disks  and
		     drives.   Using  this  option tells the drive to read any
		     media as fast as possible.	 Be very careful as  this  may
		     cause  the	 media	to  break  in the drive	while reading,
		     resulting in a damaged media and drive!

	      nospeedread
		     Turn off unlimited	read speed.

	      singlesession
		     Turn the drive into a single session  only	 drive.	  This
		     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
		     with extremely non-standard  additional  (broken/illegal)
		     TOC entries in the	TOC from the second or higher session.
		     Some of these disks become	usable if only the information
		     from  the first session is	used.  You need	to enable Sin-
		     gle Session mode before you insert	the defective disk!

	      nosinglesession
		     Turn off single session mode. The drive will again	behave
		     as	usual.

	      hidecdr
		     Hide the fact that	a medium might be a recordable medium.
		     This allows to make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and  applica-
		     tions  believe that the media in the drive	is not a CD-R.

	      nohidecdr
		     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

	      tattooinfo
		     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
		     image  size  information  for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature.
		     The images	always have a line length of 3744 pixel.  Line
		     number  0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center of the disk.
		     If	you know the inner and outer radius you	will  be  able
		     to	 create	 a  pre	 distorted image that later may	appear
		     undistorted on the	disk.

	      tattoofile=name
		     Use this option together with  -checkdrive	 to  write  an
		     image  prepared  for  the	Yamaha	DiskT@2	feature	to the
		     medium.  The file must be a file with raw image B&W  data
		     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
		     call to tattoofile=name .	 If  the  size	of  the	 image
		     equals  the  maximum  possible  size  (3744 x 320 pixel),
		     cdrecord will use the first part of the file. This	 first
		     part  then	 will  be written to the leftover space	on the
		     CD.

		     Note that the image must be mirrored to be	readable  from
		     the pick up side of the CD.

       -setdropts
	      Set  the	driveropts  specified  by  driveropts=option list, the
	      speed of the drive and the dummy flag  and  exit.	  This	allows
	      cdrecord	to set drive specific parameters that are not directly
	      used by cdrecord like e.g.  single session mode,	hide  cdr  and
	      similar.	 It  is	 needed	 in  case  that	driveropts=option list
	      should be	called without planning	 to  run  a  typical  cdrecord
	      task.

       -checkdrive
	      Checks  if  a  driver for	the current drive is present and exit.
	      If the drive is a	known drive, cdrecord uses exit	code 0.

       -prcap Print the	drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives  as
	      obtained	from  mode  page  0x2A.	Values marked with kB use 1000
	      bytes as kilo-byte, values marked	with  KB  use  1024  bytes  as
	      Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for	the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

       -scanbus
	      Scan  all	 SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry
	      strings. This option may be used to find	SCSI  address  of  the
	      CD/DVD-Recorder  on a system.  The numbers printed out as	labels
	      are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus	where the CD recorder is located. This
	      works not	on all operating systems.

       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If you use cdrecord
	      only, this should	never be needed; but other software may	 leave
	      a	 drive	in an unusable condition.  Calling cdrecord -reset may
	      be needed	if a previous write has	been interrupted and the soft-
	      ware  did	not tell the drive that	it will	not continue to	write.

       -overburn
	      Allow cdrecord to	write more than	the official size of a medium.
	      This  feature  is	 usually called	overburning and	depends	on the
	      fact that	most blank media may hold more space than the official
	      size.  As	 the official size of the lead-out area	on the disk is
	      90 seconds (6750 sectors)	and a disk usually works if there  are
	      at least 150 sectors of lead out,	all media may be overburned by
	      at least 88 seconds (6600	sectors).  Most	CD recorders  only  do
	      overburning  in  SAO  or RAW mode. Known exceptions are TEAC CD-
	      R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.   Some  drives  do
	      not  allow  to  overburn as much as you might like and limit the
	      size of a	CD to e.g. 76 minutes. This  problem  may  be  circum-
	      vented  by writing the CD	in RAW mode because this way the drive
	      has no chance to find the	size before starting to	 burn.	 There
	      is  no  guarantee	 that  your drive supports overburning at all.
	      Make a test to check if your drive implements the	feature.

       -ignsize
	      Ignore the known size of the medium. This	option should be  used
	      with  extreme  care, it exists only for debugging	purposes don't
	      use it for other reasons.	 It is not needed to write disks  with
	      more  than the nominal capacity.	This option implies -overburn.

       -useinfo
	      Use *.inf	files to overwrite audio options.  If this  option  is
	      used,  the  pregap  size information is read from	the *.inf file
	      that is associated with the file that contains  the  audio  data
	      for a track.

	      If used together with the	-audio option, cdrecord	may be used to
	      write audio CDs from a pipe from cdda2wav	if you	call  cdrecord
	      with  the	 *.inf	files as track parameter list instead of using
	      audio files.  The	audio data is read from	stdin  in  this	 case.
	      See  EXAMPLES section below.  Cdrecord first verifies that stdin
	      is not connected to a terminal and runs some  heuristic  consis-
	      tency  checks on the *.inf files and then	sets the track lengths
	      from the information in the *.inf	files.

	      If you like to write from	stdin,	make  sure  that  cdrecord  is
	      called  with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the	write speed to
	      a	value below the	read speed of the source drive and switch  the
	      burn-free	option for the recording drive on.

       defpregap=#
	      Set  the default pre-gap size for	all tracks except track	number
	      1.  This option currently	only makes sense with the  TEAC	 drive
	      when  creating  track-at-once disks without the 2	second silence
	      before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

       -packet
	      Set Packet writing mode.	This is	an experimental	interface.

       pktsize=#
	      Set the packet size to #,	forces fixed packet mode.  This	is  an
	      experimental interface.

       -noclose
	      Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ-
	      ing mode.	 This is an experimental interface.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
	      Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to	med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write CD-Text information	based on information taken from	a file
	      that  contains ascii information for the text strings.  Cdrecord
	      supports CD-Text information based on the	content	of  the	 *.inf
	      files  created  by cdda2wav and CD-Text information based	on the
	      content from a CUE sheet file.  If a  CUE	 sheet	file  contains
	      both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
	      the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

	      You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
	      cdrecord to read the *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to
	      tell cdrecord to read a CUE sheet	file in	addition.  If you like
	      to  write	 your own CD-Text information, edit the	*.inf files or
	      the CUE sheet file with a	text editor and	change the fields that
	      are relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
	      Write  CD-Text  based  on	 information  found in the binary file
	      filename.	 This file must	contain	information in a  data	format
	      defined  in  the	SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the Red Book. The
	      four byte	size header that is defined in the  SCSI  standard  is
	      optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
	      ambiguous.  This is the best option to be	used to	 copy  CD-Text
	      data  from  existing CDs that already carry CD-Text information.
	      To get data in a format suitable for this	 option	 use  cdrecord
	      -vv  -toc	 to  extract  the  information	from  disk.   If both,
	      textfile=filename	and CD-Text information	from  *.inf  or	 *.cue
	      files  are  present,  textfile=filename will overwrite the other
	      information.

       cuefile=filename
	      Take all recording related information from a  CDRWIN  compliant
	      CUE  sheet file.	No track files are allowed when	this option is
	      present and the option -dao is currently needed in addition.

TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       isrc=ISRC_number
	      Set the International Standard Recording	Number	for  the  next
	      track to ISRC_number.

       index=list
	      Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
	      separated	list of	numbers	that are counting from	index  1.  The
	      first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
	      must be an ascending list	of numbers (counting in	1/75  seconds)
	      that  represent  the  start of the indices. An index list	in the
	      form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
	      2	 100  seconds from the start of	the track and index 3 200 sec-
	      onds from	the start of the track.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-DA  (similar  to  Red Book) audio format.  The	file with data
	      for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
	      44100  samples/s.	  The  byte order should be the	following: MSB
	      left, LSB	left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB	left and  so  on.  The
	      track  should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to
	      put the master image of an audio track on	 a  raw	 disk  because
	      data will	be read	in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
	      process.

	      If a filename ends in .au	or .wav	the file is considered to be a
	      structured  audio	 data file.  Cdrecord assumes that the file in
	      this case	is a Sun audio file  or	 a  Microsoft  .WAV  file  and
	      extracts the audio data from the files by	skipping over the non-
	      audio header information.	 In all	 other	cases,	cdrecord  will
	      only  work  correctly if the audio data stream does not have any
	      header.  Because many structured audio  files  do	 not  have  an
	      integral number of blocks	(1/75th	second)	in length, it is often
	      necessary	to specify the -pad option as well.   cdrecord	recog-
	      nizes that audio data in a .WAV file is stored in	Intel (little-
	      endian) byte order, and will automatically byte-swap the data if
	      the  CD recorder requires	big-endian data.  Cdrecord will	reject
	      any audio	file that does not match the Red Book requirements  of
	      16-bit stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

	      Using  other  structured audio data formats as input to cdrecord
	      will usually work	if the structure of the	data is	the  structure
	      described	 above	(raw pcm data in big-endian byte order).  How-
	      ever, if the data	format includes	a  header,  you	 will  hear  a
	      click at the start of a track.

	      If  neither  -data  nor  -audio  have  been  specified, cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that	end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       -swab  If  this	flag  is present, audio	data is	assumed	to be in byte-
	      swapped (little-endian) order.  Some types  of  CD-Writers  e.g.
	      Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
	      be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
	      audio  data  to  be  presented  in the big-endian	(network) byte
	      order normally used by the SCSI protocol.	 Cdrecord knows	 if  a
	      CD-Recorder needs	audio data in big- or little-endian order, and
	      corrects the byte	order of the data stream to match the needs of
	      the  recorder.  You only need the	-swab flag if your data	stream
	      is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

	      Note that	the verbose output of cdrecord will show you if	 swap-
	      ping  is	necessary to make the byte order of the	input data fit
	      the required byte	order of the recorder.	Cdrecord will not show
	      you if the -swab flag was	actually present for a track.

       -data  If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size	is a  multiple
	      of  2048	bytes.	 The  file  with  track	data should contain an
	      ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge filesystem	image (see  mkisofs  for  more
	      details).	If the track data is an	ufs filesystem image, fragment
	      size should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives with  2 KB
	      sector size to be	used for reading.

	      -data  is	 the default, if no other flag is present and the file
	      does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file	types.

	      If  neither  -data  nor  -audio  have  been  specified, cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that	end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       -mode2 If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM mode 2 format. The	data size is a multiple	of 2336	bytes.

       -xa    If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM XA	mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a  multiple  of
	      2048  bytes.   The  XA sector sub	headers	will be	created	by the
	      drive.  With this	option,	the write mode is the same as with the
	      -multi option.

       -xa1   If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM XA	mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a  multiple  of
	      2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers are part of the user data
	      and have to be supplied by the  application  that	 prepares  the
	      data to be written.

       -xa2   If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM XA	mode 2 form 2 format. The data is a multiple  of  2324
	      bytes.   The XA sector sub headers will be created by the	drive.

       -xamix If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in  a
	      way  that	 allows	a mix of CD-ROM	XA mode	2 form 1/2 format. The
	      data size	is a multiple of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector sub	 head-
	      ers  are	part  of  the user data	and have to be supplied	by the
	      application that prepares	the data to be written.	 The  CRC  and
	      the  P/Q	parity	ECC/EDC	 information  (depending on the	sector
	      type) have to be supplied	by the application that	 prepares  the
	      data to be written.

       -cdi   If  this	flag  is  present, the TOC type	for the	disk is	set to
	      CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -isosize
	      Use the ISO-9660 file system size	as the size of the next	track.
	      This  option is needed if	you want cdrecord to directly read the
	      image of a track from a raw disk partition or from a TAO	master
	      CD. In the first case the	option -isosize	is needed to limit the
	      size of the CD to	the size of the	ISO filesystem.	 In the	second
	      case  the	 option	 -isosize  is  needed to prevent cdrecord from
	      reading the two run out blocks that are  appended	 by  each  CD-
	      recorder	in track at once mode. These two run out blocks	cannot
	      be read and would	cause a	buffer underrun	 that  would  cause  a
	      defective	 copy.	 Do  not  use  this option on files created by
	      mkisofs and in case cdrecord reads the track  data  from	stdin.
	      In  the  first case, you would prevent cdrecord from writing the
	      amount of	padding	that has been appended by mkisofs and  in  the
	      latter case, it will not work because stdin is not seekable.

	      If -isosize is used for a	track, cdrecord	will automatically add
	      padding for this track as	if the -pad option has been  used  but
	      the  amount  of  padding may be less than	the padding written by
	      mkisofs.	Note that if you use -isosize on a track that contains
	      Sparc boot information, the boot information will	be lost.

	      Note  also that this option cannot be used to determine the size
	      of a file	system if the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If the track is a	data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will  be
	      added  to	 the  end  of this and each subsequent data track.  In
	      this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
	      It  will	remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.	If the
	      -pad option refers to an audio  track,  cdrecord	will  pad  the
	      audio  data to be	a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data pad-
	      ding is done with	binary	zeroes	which  is  equal  to  absolute
	      silence.

	      -pad remains valid until disabled	by -nopad.

       padsize=#
	      Set  the	amount	of  data to be appended	as padding to the next
	      track to #.  Opposed to the behavior of  the  -pad  option,  the
	      value  for  padsize=  is	reset  to  zero	 for  each  new	track.
	      Cdrecord assumes a sector	size of	2048 bytes  for	 the  padsize=
	      option,  independent  from  the real sector size and independent
	      from the write mode.  The	megabytes  mentioned  in  the  verbose
	      mode output however are counting the output sector size which is
	      e.g. 2448	bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96	mode.  See fs=	option
	      for  possible arguments.	To pad the equivalent of 20 minutes on
	      a	CD, you	may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this option if  your
	      CD-drive	is  not	able to	read the last sectors of a track or if
	      you want to be able to read the CD on a Linux  system  with  the
	      ISO-9660	filesystem  read  ahead	bug.  If an empty file is used
	      for track	data, this option may be used to create	a disk that is
	      entirely made of padding.	 This may e.g. be used to find out how
	      much overburning is possible with	a specific media.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks -	the default.

       -shorttrack
	      Allow all	subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track	length
	      standard	which  requires	 a  minimum track length of 4 seconds.
	      This option is only useful when used in SAO or  RAW  mode.   Not
	      all  drives  support  this  feature.  The	 drive must accept the
	      resulting	CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -noshorttrack
	      Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
	      least 4 seconds.

       pregap=#
	      Set the  pre-gap size for	the next track.	 This option currently
	      only makes sense with the	TEAC drive when	creating track-at-once
	      disks without the	2 second silence before	each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

       -preemp
	      If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks will indicate that	the audio data has been	 sampled  with
	      50/15  microsec pre-emphasis.  The data, however is not modified
	      during the process of transferring  from	file  to  disk.	  This
	      option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nopreemp
	      If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks will indicate that	the audio data has been	mastered  with
	      linear data - this is the	default.

       -copy  If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      permission  to  be  copied  without  limit.   This option	has no
	      effect on	data tracks.

       -nocopy
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      permission to be copied only once	for personal use - this	is the
	      default.

       -scms  If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      no permission to be copied anymore.

       tsize=#
	      If  the master image for the next	track has been stored on a raw
	      disk, use	this option to specify the valid  amount  of  data  on
	      this disk. If the	image of the next track	is stored in a regular
	      file, the	size of	that file is taken to determine	the length  of
	      this  track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem image
	      use the -isosize option to determine the length of that filesys-
	      tem image.
	      In Disk at Once mode and with some drives	that use the TEAC pro-
	      gramming interface, even in Track	at Once	mode,  cdrecord	 needs
	      to  know	the  size  of  each track before starting to write the
	      disk.  Cdrecord now checks this and aborts  before  starting  to
	      write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs -print-size
	      before and use the output	(with `s' appended) as an argument  to
	      the tsize= option	of cdrecord (e.g. tsize=250000s).
	      See fs= option for possible arguments.

EXAMPLES
       For  all	examples below,	it will	be assumed that	the CD/DVD-Recorder is
       connected to the	primary	SCSI bus of the	machine. The SCSI target id is
       set to 2.

       To record a pure	CD-ROM at double speed,	using data from	the file cdim-
       age.raw:

	   cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To create an image for a	ISO 9660 filesystem  with  Rock	 Ridge	exten-
       sions:

	   mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check	the resulting file before writing to CD	on Solaris:

	   mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs	/dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       On Linux:

	   mount cdimage.raw -r	-t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
	   ls -lR /mnt
	   umount /mnt

       If  the	overall	speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of
       the filesystem is not too complex, cdrecord will	run  without  creating
       an image	of the ISO 9660	filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The  recommended	 minimum  FIFO	size  for  running  this pipeline is 4
       MBytes.	As the default FIFO size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs only be
       present	if  you	 want to use a different FIFO size.  If	your system is
       loaded, you should run mkisofs in the real time class  too.   To	 raise
       the priority of mkisofs replace the command

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree
       by
	   priocntl -e -c RT -p	59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

	   nice	--18 mkisofs -R	/master/tree

       on  systems  that  don't	 have  UNIX  International compliant real-time
       scheduling.

       Cdrecord	runs at	priority 59 on Solaris,	you should run mkisofs	at  no
       more  than  priority 58.	On other systems, you should run mkisofs at no
       less than nice --18.

       Creating	a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested  on
       a  Sparcstation-2  with	a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed
       when the	machine	was not	loaded.	 A faster machine may be able to  han-
       dle quad	speed also in the loaded case.

       To  record  a  pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each track con-
       tained in a file	named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio,	etc:

	   cdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To check	if it will be ok to use	double speed for  the  example	above.
       Use the dummy write option:

	   cdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw
       on the first track, the other tracks being audio	tracks from the	 files
       track01.cdaudio,	track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   cdrecord -v dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting
       to write, first run

	   mkisofs -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then	run

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by	the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

       To copy an audio	CD in the most accurate	way, first run

	   cdda2wav dev=2,0 -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then	run

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This will try to	copy track indices and	to  read  CD-Text  information
       from  disk.   If	 there is no CD-Text information, cdda2wav will	try to
       get the information from	freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio	CD from	a pipe (without	intermediate files), first run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then	run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This  will  get	all  information  (including track size	info) from the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data	from stdin.

       If you like to write from stdin,	make sure that cdrecord	is called with
       a  large	 enough	FIFO size (e.g.	 fs=128m), reduce the write speed to a
       value below the read speed of the source	drive  (e.g.   speed=12),  and
       switch  the  burn-free  option  for  the	 recording  drive on by	adding
       driveropts=burnfree.

       To set drive options without writing a CD (e.g. to switch  a  drive  to
       single session mode), run

	   cdrecord dev=1,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no CD is in the drive, call

	   cdrecord dev=1,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

	   readcd dev=b,t,l -clone f=somefile

       or  (in case the	CD contains many sectors that are unreadable by	inten-
       tion) by	calling:

	   readcd dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       will create the files somefile and somefile.toc.	  Then	write  the  CD
       using:

	   cdrecord dev=1,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
	      This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable	to the
	      open call	of the SCSI transport library or a label in  the  file
	      /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.

       CDR_SPEED
	      Sets  the	 default  speed	 value	for  writing  (see also	-speed
	      option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
	      Sets the default size of the FIFO	(see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
	      If this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you  to
	      write  at	 the  full  RAW	 encoding speed	a single CPU supports.
	      This will	create high potential of buffer	 underruns.  Use  with
	      care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
	      If  this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow	you to
	      write at the full	DMA speed the system supports.	 There	is  no
	      DMA  reserve  for	 reading  the  data that is to be written from
	      disk.  This will create high potential of	buffer underruns.  Use
	      with care.

       RSH    If  the  RSH  environment	is present, the	remote connection will
	      not be created via rcmd(3) but by	calling	the program pointed to
	      by  RSH.	 Use  e.g.   RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create	a secure shell
	      connection.

	      Note that	this forces cdrecord to	create a pipe  to  the	rsh(1)
	      program  and  disallows  cdrecord	to directly access the network
	      socket to	the remote server.  This makes it impossible to	set up
	      performance parameters and slows down the	connection compared to
	      a	root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
	      not be the program /usr/local/sbin/rscsi but the program pointed
	      to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server program name will
	      be  ignored if you log in	using an account that has been created
	      with a remote SCSI server	program	as login shell.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/cdrecord
	      Default  values  can  be	set  for  the  following  options   in
	      /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.	  For	example:   CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m  or
	      CDR_SPEED=2

	      CDR_DEVICE
		     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
		     to	the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
		     in	the file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord that allows to	 iden-
		     tify a specific drive on the system.

	      CDR_SPEED
		     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also	-speed
		     option).

	      CDR_FIFOSIZE
		     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Any other	label
		     is	 an  identifier	 for  a	 specific drive	on the system.
		     Such an identifier	may not	contain	 the  characters  ',',
		     '/', '@' or ':'.

		     Each  line	 that follows a	label contains a TAB separated
		     list of items.  Currently,	four items are recognized: the
		     SCSI  ID  of  the drive, the default speed	that should be
		     used for this drive, the default FIFO size	that should be
		     used  for this drive and drive specific options. The val-
		     ues for speed and fifosize	may  be	 set  to  -1  to  tell
		     cdrecord  to  use	the  global  defaults.	 The value for
		     driveropts	may be set to "" if no driveropts are used.  A
		     typical line may look this	way:

		     teac1= 0,5,0   4	 8m   ""

		     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1	 -1   burnfree

		     This  tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at scsi-
		     bus 0, target 5, lun 0 and	should be used	with  speed  4
		     and  a FIFO size of 8 MB.	A second drive may be found at
		     scsibus 1,	target 6, lun 0	and uses the default speed and
		     the default FIFO size.

SEE ALSO
       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), mkisofs(8), rcmd(3), ssh(1).

NOTES
       Not  all	 options  described in this manual may be supported by the GPL
       variant of cdrecord. Cdrecord issues a warning if an attempt is made to
       use an option that has been disabled in the GPL variant.

       On  Solaris  you	 need to stop the volume management if you like	to use
       the USCSI fallback SCSI	transport  code.  Even	things	like  cdrecord
       -scanbus	will not work if the volume management is running.

       Disks  made  in	Track  At  Once	 mode are not suitable as a master for
       direct mass production by CD manufacturers.  You	will need the disk  at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At Once will normally be	read in	all CD	players.  Some	old  audio  CD
       players	however	 may  produce  a  two  second  click between two audio
       tracks.

       The minimal size	of a track is 4	seconds	or 300 sectors.	If  you	 write
       smaller	tracks,	 the CD-Recorder will add dummy	blocks.	This is	not an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       Cdrecord	has been tested	on an upgraded	Philips	 CDD-521  recorder  at
       single  and  double  speed  on  a SparcStation 20/502 with no problems,
       slower computer systems should work also.  The  newer  Philips/HP/Plas-
       mon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and	CDR-102	work also. The
       Plasmon RF-4100 work, but has not tested	in multi session.   A  Philips
       CDD-521 that has	not been upgraded will not work.  The Sony CDU-924 has
       been tested, but	does not  support  XA-mode2  in	 hardware.   The  Sony
       therefore  cannot  create  conforming  multi  session disks.  The Ricoh
       RO-1420C	works, but some	people seem to have problems to	use them  with
       speed=2,	try speed=0 in this case.

       The  Yamaha  CDR-400  and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming drives are sup-
       ported in single	and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the  -dummy  option  turned  on if you are using	cdrecord on an unknown
       system. Writing a CD is a  real-time  process.	NFS  will  not	always
       deliver	constantly the needed data rates.  If you want to use cdrecord
       with CD-images that are located on a NFS	mounted	 filesystem,  be  sure
       that  the FIFO size is big enough.  I used cdrecord with	medium load on
       a SS20/502 and even at quad speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was heavily
       loaded,	but it is recommended to leave the system as lightly loaded as
       possible	while writing a	CD.  If	you want  to  make  sure  that	buffer
       underruns are not caused	by your	source disk, you may use the command

	   cdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m	/dev/null

       to  create  a disk that is entirely made	of dummy data.	Cdrecord needs
       to run as root to get access to the /dev/scg?  device nodes and	to  be
       able to lock itself into	memory.

       If  you	don't  want  to	 allow	users  to  become root on your system,
       cdrecord	may safely be installed	suid root. This	allows all users or  a
       group  of  users	 with no root privileges to use	cdrecord.  Cdrecord in
       this case checks, if the	real user would	have been  able	 to  read  the
       specified files.	 To give all user access to use	cdrecord, enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to cdrecord enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never  give  write  permissions	for  non  root	users to the /dev/scg?
       devices unless you would	allow anybody to  read/write/format  all  your
       disks.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/recon-
       nect to either the SCSI bus that	is connected to	the CD-Recorder	or the
       source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When  creating  a disc with both	audio and data tracks, the data	should
       be on track 1 otherwise you should create a  CDplus  disk  which	 is  a
       multi  session  disk with the first session containing the audio	tracks
       and the following session containing the	data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more	 than  a  single  data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       More  information  on  the  SCSI	command	set of a HP CD-Recorder	can be
       found at:

	    http://www.hp.com/isgsupport/cdr/index.html

       If you have more	information or	SCSI  command  manuals	for  currently
       unsupported CD/DVD-Recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-Recorder (even in	the upgraded version) has sev-
       eral firmware bugs. Some	of them	will force  you	 to  power  cycle  the
       device or to reboot the machine.

       When  using  cdrecord  with  the	broken Linux SCSI generic driver.  You
       should note that	cdrecord uses a	hack, that tries to emulate the	 func-
       tionality of the	scg driver.  Unfortunately, the	sg driver on Linux has
       several severe bugs:

       o      It cannot	see if a SCSI command could not	be sent	at all.

       o      It cannot	get the	SCSI status byte.  Cdrecord  for  that	reason
	      cannot report failing SCSI commands in some situations.

       o      It  cannot get real DMA count of transfer.  Cdrecord cannot tell
	      you if there is an DMA residual count.

       o      It cannot	 get  number  of  bytes	 valid	in  auto  sense	 data.
	      Cdrecord	cannot	tell  you if device transfers no sense data at
	      all.

       o      It fetches to few	data in	auto request sense  (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3
	      needs >= 18).

       The FIFO	percent	output is computed just	after a	block of data has been
       written to the CD/DVD-Recorder. For this	reason,	there  will  never  be
       100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       You  have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort cdrecord	after you see the mes-
       sage:

       Starting	to write CD at speed %d	in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks	like:

	      cdrecord:	I/O error. test	unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  00 20 00 00	00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00	0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00	00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s	timeout	40s

       The first line gives information	about the transport  of	 the  command.
       The text	after the first	colon gives the	error text for the system call
       from the	view of	the kernel. It usually	is:  I/O  error	 unless	 other
       problems	 happen.  The  next  words contain a short description for the
       SCSI command that fails.	The rest of the	line tells you if  there  were
       any problems for	the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.	 fatal
       error means that	it was not possible to transport the command (i.e.  no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block	for the	failed
       command.

       The third line gives information	on the SCSI status  code  returned  by
       the  command,  if the transport of the command succeeds.	 This is error
       information from	the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex	dump of	the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The  fifth  line	is the error text for the sense	key if available, fol-
       lowed by	the segment number that	is only	valid if  the  command	was  a
       copy  command. If the error message is not directly related to the cur-
       rent command, the text deferred error is	appended.

       The sixth line is the error text	for the	sense code and the sense qual-
       ifier if	available.  If the type	of the device is known,	the sense data
       is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .  The text	 is  followed  by  the
       error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The  seventh line prints	the block number that is related to the	failed
       command and text	for several error flags. The block number may  not  be
       valid.

       The eight line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time
       that the	command	really needed to complete.

       The following message is	not an error:

	      Track 01:	Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
	      cdrecord:	I/O error. flush cache:	scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  35 00 00 00	00 00 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27	0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00	00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy	data blocks added) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s	timeout	40s

       It simply notifies, that	a track	that is	smaller	than the minimum  size
       has been	expanded to 300	sectors.

BUGS
       Cdrecord	has even more options than ls.

       There  should  be a recover option to make disks	usable,	that have been
       written during a	power failure.

CREDITS
       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
		      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
		      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
		      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
		      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
		      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
		      For creating the experimental  packet  writing  support,
		      the  first implementation	of CD-RW blanking support, the
		      first .wav file decoder and  many	 nice  discussions  on
		      cdrecord.

       Chris P.	Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
		      For the first implementation of a	BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R.	Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
		      For creating the first parallel port transport implemen-
		      tation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry	(ken@kdm.org)
		      for providing the	CAM port  for  FreeBSD	together  with
		      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
		      for  making  libedc_ecc  available  (needed to write RAW
		      data sectors).

MAILING	LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the	development of	cdrecord,  you
       may join	the developer mailing list via this URL:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers

       The mail	address	of the list is:	cdwrite@other.debian.org

AUTHOR
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Additional information can be found on:
       http://www.fokus.fhg.de/usr/schilling/cdrecord.html

       If you have support questions, send them	to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de
       or cdwrite@other.debian.org

       If you have definitely found a bug, send	a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or schilling@fokus.fhg.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

       The old cdwrite mailing list may	be joined by sending mail to:

	    cdwrite-request@other.debian.org

       and  including the word subscribe in the	body.  The mail	address	of the
       list is:

	    cdwrite@other.debian.org

Joerg Schilling			  Version 2.0			   CDRECORD(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GENERAL OPTIONS | TRACK OPTIONS | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | SEE ALSO | NOTES | DIAGNOSTICS | BUGS | CREDITS | MAILING LISTS | AUTHOR

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