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CDRECORD(1)		    Schily's USER COMMANDS		   CDRECORD(1)

NAME
       cdrecord	- record audio or data CD, DVD or BluRay

SYNOPSIS
       cdrecord	  [   general	options	 ][  dev=device	 ][  track  options  ]
       track1...trackn

DESCRIPTION
       Cdrecord	is used	to record data or audio	Compact	 Discs	on  an	Orange
       Book CD-recorder, to write DVD media on a DVD-recorder or to write Blu-
       Ray media on a BluRay-recorder.

   Device naming
       Most users do not need to care about device naming at all.  If no  dev=
       option  was  specified,	cdrecord  implements  auto  target support and
       automagically finds the drive in	case  that  exactly  one  CD-ROM  type
       drive  is  available  in	the system.  In	case that more than one	CD-ROM
       type drive exists on the	system,	a list of possible device name parame-
       ters may	be retrieved with cdrecord -scanbus or from the	target example
       from the	output of cdrecord dev=help, then the dev=  parameter  may  be
       set based on the	device listing.

       The  device  parameter to the dev= option explained below refers	to the
       SCSI CAM	standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the	CD/DVD/BluRay-
       recorder.   If  a file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord exists, the parameter to
       the dev=	option may also	be a drive name	label in said file (see	 FILES
       section).

   Constraints for running cdrecord
       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses	the real-time class to get the
       highest scheduling priority that	is possible (higher  than  all	kernel
       processes).   On	 systems with POSIX real-time scheduling cdrecord uses
       real-time scheduling too, but may not be	able to	gain a	priority  that
       is higher than all kernel processes.

       In  order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem	of the OS, run
       at highest priority and lock itself into	core cdrecord either needs  to
       be run as root, needs to	be installed suid root or must be called via a
       fine grained privileges mechanism, such as  the	Solaris	 privileges(5)
       mechanism  via  exec_attr(4) or the Linux capabilities(7) mechanism via
       setcap(8) to allow cdrecord to be used as an ordinary user.

   File	to track mapping
       In Track	At Once	mode, each track corresponds to	 a  single  file  that
       contains	 the  prepared	data  for that track.  If the argument is `-',
       standard	input is used for that track.  Only one	 track	may  be	 taken
       from  stdin.   In the other write modes,	the direct file	to track rela-
       tion may	not be implemented.  In	-clone mode, a	single	file  contains
       all data	for the	whole disk.  To	allow DVD writing on platforms that do
       not implement large file	support, cdrecord concatenates all file	 argu-
       ments to	a single track when writing to DVD media.

GENERAL	OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track	file name or track option.

   Informative options
       -help  display version information for cdrecord on standard output.

       -version
	      Print version information	and exit.

       -v     Increment	 the  level of general verbosity by one.  This is used
	      e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

   Media write mode options
       -dummy The -dummy option	modifies  the  current	write  strategy.   The
	      CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder  will go through all steps	of the record-
	      ing process, but the laser is turned off during this  procedure.
	      It  is  recommended to run several tests before actually writing
	      to a Compact Disk	or Digital Versatile Disk, if the  timing  and
	      load response of the current system is not yet known.

	      The  -dummy option does not work with all	media and write	modes.
	      DVD+ media and BluRay media does not support  dummy  writes  and
	      most CD-recorders	do not support dummy writes in raw mode.

       -multi Allow  multi-session  CDs	or multi-border	DVDs to	be made.  This
	      flag needs to be present on all sessions of a  multi-session  or
	      multi-border  disk,  except you want to create a session on a CD
	      that will	be the last session on the CD-media.

	      For CD-media, the	fixation will be done in a way that allows the
	      CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder to	append additional sessions later. This
	      is done by generating a TOC with a  link	to  the	 next  program
	      area.  The so generated media is not 100%	compatible to manufac-
	      tured CDs	(except	for CDplus).  Use only for recording of	multi-
	      session  CDs.  If	this option is present,	the default track type
	      is CD-ROM	XA mode	2 form 1 and the sector	size  is  2048	bytes.
	      The XA sector subheaders will be created by the drive.  The Sony
	      drives have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA  mode  2  form  1.
	      You  have	 to specify the	-data option in	order to create	multi-
	      session disks on these drives.  If you like to record  a	multi-
	      session  disk  in	 SAO mode, you need to force CD-ROM sectors by
	      including	the -data option.  Not all drives allow	 multi-session
	      CDs in SAO mode.

	      For  DVD	media,	-multi	switches the write mode	to incremental
	      packet recording.	 There is currently  no	 way  to  prevent  the
	      ability  to  append further sessions and there is	currently only
	      support for DVD-R/DVD-RW media.  To reuse	a DVD-RW that has pre-
	      viously  been  written  in incremental packet recording mode for
	      different	write modes,  you  need	 to  blank  the	 entire	 media
	      before.

       -dao

       -sao   Set  SAO	(Session At Once) mode which is	usually	called Disk At
	      Once mode.  This currently only works with MMC drives that  sup-
	      port Session At Once mode.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the
	      size of each track in advance for	this  mode  (see  the  mkisofs
	      -print-size  option  and	the EXAMPLES section for more informa-
	      tion).

	      There are	several	CD writers with	bad firmware  that  result  in
	      broken  disks  when writing in TAO or SAO	mode.  If you find any
	      problems with the	layout of a disk or  with  subchannel  content
	      (e.g.  wrong  times on the display when playing the CD) and your
	      drive supports to	write in -raw96r or -raw16  mode,  you	should
	      give it a	try.

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At	Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
	      mode in previous cdrecord	 versions.   With  most	 drives,  this
	      write mode is required for multi-session recording.

	      There  are  several  CD writers with bad firmware	that result in
	      broken disks when	writing	in TAO or SAO mode.  If	you  find  any
	      problems	with  the  layout of a disk or with subchannel content
	      (e.g. wrong times	on the display when playing the	CD)  and  your
	      drive  supports  to  write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you	should
	      give it a	try.

       -raw   Set RAW writing mode.  Using this	option	defaults  to  -raw96r.
	      Note  that  cdrecord  needs  to  know  the size of each track in
	      advance for this mode (see the mkisofs  -print-size  option  and
	      the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
	      Set RAW writing mode with	2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes	of raw
	      P-W sub-channel data resulting in	a sector size of  2448	bytes.
	      This  is the preferred raw writing mode as it gives best control
	      over the CD-writing process.  Writing data  disks	 in  raw  mode
	      needs  significantly  more  CPU  time than other write modes. If
	      your CPU is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.  Note
	      that  cdrecord  needs  to	know the size of each track in advance
	      for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option	and the	 EXAM-
	      PLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
	      Set  RAW	writing	 mode  with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of
	      packed P-W sub-channel data resulting in a sector	size  of  2448
	      bytes.   This  is	 the less preferred raw	writing	mode as	only a
	      few recorders support it and some	of these recorders  have  bugs
	      in  the  firmware	 implementation.   Don't use this mode if your
	      recorder supports	-raw96r	or -raw16.  Writing data disks in  raw
	      mode  needs  significantly more CPU time than other write	modes.
	      If your CPU is too slow, this may	result	in  buffer  underruns.
	      Note  that  cdrecord  needs  to  know  the size of each track in
	      advance for this mode (see the mkisofs  -print-size  option  and
	      the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw16 Set RAW writing mode with	2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes	of P-Q
	      sub-channel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.  If a
	      recorder	does  not  support  -raw96r, this is the preferred raw
	      writing mode.  It	does not allow to write	CD-Text	or CD+Graphics
	      but  it  is  the	only  raw writing mode in cheap	CD-writers, as
	      these cheap writers in most cases	 do  not  support  -dao	 mode.
	      Don't  use this mode if your recorder supports -raw96r.  Writing
	      data disks in raw	mode needs significantly more  CPU  time  than
	      other  write  modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may result in
	      buffer underruns.	 Note that cdrecord needs to know the size  of
	      each track in advance for	this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size
	      option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

   Cdrecord functional options
       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If you use cdrecord
	      only,  this should never be needed; but other software may leave
	      a	drive in an unusable condition.	 Calling cdrecord  -reset  may
	      be needed	if a previous write has	been interrupted and the soft-
	      ware did not tell	the drive that it will not continue to	write.

       -atip  Retrieve	and  print  out	the ATIP (Absolute Time	In Pre-groove)
	      info of a	CD/DVD/BluRay recordable or CD/DVD/BluRay  re-writable
	      media.  With this	option,	cdrecord will try to retrieve the ATIP
	      info. If the actual drive	does not  support  to  read  the  ATIP
	      info,  it	 may be	that only a reduced set	of information records
	      or even nothing is displayed. Only a limited number of  MMC-com-
	      pliant drives support to read the	ATIP info.

	      If  cdrecord  is able to retrieve	the lead-in start time for the
	      first session, it	will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
	      info  from  the media.  DVD media	does not have ATIP information
	      but there	is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
	      and printed.

       blank=type
	      Blank  a	CD-RW  and  exit  or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
	      blanking type may	be one of:

	      help	  Display a list of possible blanking types.

	      all	  Blank	the entire disk. This may take a long time.

	      fast	  Minimally blank the disk. This  results  in  erasing
			  the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

	      track	  Blank	the last track.

	      unreserve	  Unreserve a reserved track.

	      trtail	  Blank	the tail of a track.

	      unclose	  Unclose last session.

	      session	  Blank	the last session.

	      Not  all	drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary
	      to use blank=all if a drive reports a specified command as being
	      invalid.	If used	together with the -force flag, this option may
	      be used to blank CD-RW disks that	otherwise cannot  be  blanked.
	      Note  that you may need to specify blank=all because some	drives
	      will not continue	with certain types of bad  CD-RW  disks.  Note
	      also  that cdrecord does its best	if the -force flag is used but
	      it finally depends on the	drive's	firmware whether the  blanking
	      operation	will succeed or	not.

       -checkdrive
	      Checks  if  a  driver for	the current drive is present and exit.
	      If the drive is a	known drive, cdrecord uses exit	code 0.

       -clone Tells cdrecord to	handle images created by readcd	 -clone.   The
	      -clone  write  mode  may	only  be  used in conjunction with the
	      -raw96r or -raw16	option.	 Using -clone together with -raw96r is
	      preferred	 as  it	 allows	 to  write  all	sub-channel data.  The
	      -raw16 option should only	be used	with drives that do  not  sup-
	      port to write in -raw96r mode.

	      Note that	copying	in clone mode disables certain levels of error
	      correction and thus always results  in  a	 quality  degradation.
	      Avoid copying audio CDs in clone mode for	this reason.

       cuefile=filename
	      Take  all	 recording-related information from a CDRWIN-compliant
	      CUE sheet	file.  No track-file arguments to cdrecord are allowed
	      when  this  option  is present and one of	the following options:
	      -dao, -sao, -raw,	-raw16,	-raw96r	is needed in addition.

       defpregap=#
	      Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track	number
	      1.   This	 option	currently only makes sense with	the TEAC drive
	      when creating track-at-once disks	without	the  2-second  silence
	      before each track.
	      This option may go away in the future.

       driver=name
	      Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
	      reason for the existence of the driver=name option is  to	 allow
	      users  to	use cdrecord with drives that are similar to supported
	      drives but not known directly  by	 cdrecord.   All  drives  made
	      after  1997  should be MMC-standard-compliant and	thus supported
	      by one of	the MMC	drivers.  It is	most unlikely that cdrecord is
	      unable  to find the right	driver automatically.  Use this	option
	      with extreme care. If a wrong driver is used for a  device,  the
	      possibility  of  creating	 corrupted disks is high.  The minimum
	      problem related to a wrong driver	is that	the -speed  or	-dummy
	      will not work.

	      The following driver names are supported:

	      help   To	 get  a	list of	possible drivers together with a short
		     description.

	      mmc_bd The generic SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
		     support to	write BluRay media or a	multi system that con-
		     tains  a  BluRay disk as the current medium.  This	driver
		     tries to close the	tray, checks the medium	found  in  the
		     tray  and	then  branches	to the driver that matches the
		     current medium.

	      mmc_bdr
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
		     support to	write BluRay BD-R media	or a multi system that
		     contains a	BluRay BD-R disk as the	current	medium.

	      mmc_bdre
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds an	MMC-compliant drive that  does
		     support  to  write	 BluRay	 BD-RE media or	a multi	system
		     that contains a BluRay BD-RE disk as the current  medium.

	      mmc_cd The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds an	MMC-compliant drive that  does
		     not  identify  itself  to support writing at all, or that
		     only identifies to	 support  media	 or  write  modes  not
		     implemented in cdrecord.

	      mmc_cd_dvd
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD/DVD/BluRay  driver  is auto-
		     selected whenever cdrecord	finds an MMC-2	or  MMC-3-com-
		     pliant  drive  that seems to support more than one	medium
		     type and the tray is open or no medium could be found  to
		     select  the right driver.	This driver tries to close the
		     tray, checks the  medium  found  in  the  tray  and  then
		     branches to the driver that matches the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds an	MMC-compliant drive that  only
		     supports  to  write CDs or	a multi	system drive that con-
		     tains a CD	as the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr_sony
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	 would	otherwise  select  the mmc_cdr
		     driver but	the device seems to  be	 made  by  Sony.   The
		     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely	needed for the Sony CDU	928 as
		     this drive	does not completely implement the MMC standard
		     and  some of the MMC SCSI commands	have to	be replaced by
		     Sony proprietary commands.	It seems that all Sony	drives
		     (even  newer  ones)  still	implement the Sony proprietary
		     SCSI commands so it has not yet become a problem  to  use
		     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
		     drive that	does not work with this	driver,	please report.

	      mmc_dvd
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-2	 DVD-R/DVD-RW  driver is auto-
		     selected whenever cdrecord	finds an MMC-2	or  MMC-3-com-
		     pliant drive that supports	to write DVDs and an appropri-
		     ate medium	is loaded.  There is no	Track At Once mode for
		     DVD writers.

	      mmc_dvdplus
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3	 DVD+R/DVD+RW  driver is auto-
		     selected whenever one of the DVD+ media  types  that  are
		     incompatible to each other	is found.  It checks media and
		     then branches to the  driver  that	 matches  the  current
		     medium.

	      mmc_dvdplusr
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3	 DVD+R driver is auto-selected
		     whenever a	 DVD+R	medium	is  found  in  an  appropriate
		     writer.	Note  that  for	 unknown  reason,  the	DVD+RW
		     Alliance does not like that there is  a  simulation  mode
		     for  DVD+R	 media.	  The author of	cdrecord tries to con-
		     vince manufacturers to implement a	 simulation  mode  for
		     DVD+R  and	 implement  support.   DVD+R only supports one
		     write mode	that is	somewhere between Track	 At  Once  and
		     Packet writing; this mode is selected in cdrecord via the
		     -dao/-sao option.

	      mmc_dvdplusrw
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  a  DVD+RW  medium  is  found  in	an appropriate
		     writer.  As DVD+RW	media  need  to	 be  formatted	before
		     their  first use, cdrecord	auto-detects this medium state
		     and performs a format before it starts  to	 write.	  Note
		     that  for	unknown	 reason,  the DVD+RW Alliance does not
		     like that there is	a simulation mode nor a	way  to	 erase
		     DVD+RW  media.   DVD+RW only supports one write mode that
		     is	close to Packet	writing;  this	mode  is  selected  in
		     cdrecord via the -dao/-sao	option.

	      cw_7501
		     The  driver  for  Matsushita/Panasonic  CW-7501  is auto-
		     selected when cdrecord  finds  this  old  pre-MMC	drive.
		     Cdrecord supports all write modes for this	drive type.

	      kodak_pcd_600
		     The  driver  for  Kodak  PCD-600  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord finds this old pre-MMC drive which has been  the
		     first  high  speed	 (6x)  CD-writer for a long time. This
		     drive behaves similarly to	the Philips CDD-521 drive.

	      philips_cdd521
		     The driver	for  Philips  CDD-521  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  a	 Philips  CDD-521  drive (which	is the
		     first CD-writer ever made)	or one	of  the	 other	drives
		     that  are	known  to behave similarly to this drive.  All
		     Philips CDD-521 or	similar	drives (see other  drivers  in
		     this list)	do not support Session At Once recording.

	      philips_cdd521_old
		     The  driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-521 with very	 old  firmware
		     which has some known limitations.

	      philips_cdd522
		     The  driver  for  Philips	CDD-522	 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-522 which is	the  successor
		     of	 the  521  or  one  of	its variants with Kodak	label.
		     Cdrecord does not support Session At Once recording  with
		     these drives.

	      philips_dumb
		     The  driver  for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assump-
		     tions is never auto-selected.  It may  be	used  by  hand
		     with drives that behave similarly to the Philips CDD-521.

	      pioneer_dws114x
		     The driver	for Pioneer  DW-S114X  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  one  of  the old non-MMC CD-writers from
		     Pioneer.

	      plasmon_rf4100
		     The driver	for Plasmon  RF	 4100  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  this  specific  variant  of  the Philips
		     CDD-521.

	      ricoh_ro1060c
		     The driver	 for  Ricoh  RO-1060C  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  this drive. There	is no real support for
		     this drive	yet.

	      ricoh_ro1420c
		     The driver	 for  Ricoh  RO-1420C  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds a drive with this specific	variant	of the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      scsi2_cd
		     The generic SCSI-2	CD-ROM driver is  auto-selected	 when-
		     ever cdrecord finds a pre-MMC drive that does not support
		     writing or	a pre-MMC writer  that	is  not	 supported  by
		     cdrecord.

	      sony_cdu924
		     The  driver  for  Sony CDU-924 / CDU-948 is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds one of the	old pre-MMC CD-writers
		     from Sony.

	      teac_cdr50
		     The  driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac	CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010,
		     Pinnacle RCD-5020 is auto-selected	whenever  one  of  the
		     drives  is	found that is known to use the non-MMC command
		     set used by TEAC and JVC.	Note that many drives from JVC
		     will not work because they	do not correctly implement the
		     documented	command	set and	JVC has	been unwilling to  fix
		     or	 document  the bugs.  There is no support for the Ses-
		     sion At Once write	mode yet.

	      tyuden_ew50
		     The driver	for Taiyo Yuden	EW-50  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds a drive with this specific	variant	of the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      yamaha_cdr100
		     The driver	for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is	 auto-selected
		     when  cdrecord  finds  one	 of the	old pre-MMC CD-writers
		     from Yamaha.  There is no support for the Session At Once
		     write mode	yet.

	      bd_simul
		     The  simulation  BluRay  driver  allows to	run timing and
		     speed tests with parameters that match  the  behavior  of
		     BluRay writers.

	      cdr_simul
		     The simulation CD-R driver	allows to run timing and speed
		     tests with	parameters that	match the behavior of CD-writ-
		     ers.

	      dvd_simul
		     The  simulation  DVD-R  driver  allows  to	run timing and
		     speed tests with parameters that match  the  behavior  of
		     DVD writers.

	      There  are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and
	      dvd_simul.  These	driver entries are  designed  to  make	timing
	      tests  at	 any speed or timing tests for drives that do not sup-
	      port the -dummy option.	The  simulation	 drivers  implement  a
	      drive  with  a  buffer  size of 1	MB that	can be changed via the
	      CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE	environment variable.  The  simulation	driver
	      correctly	 simulates  even  a buffer underrun condition.	If the
	      -dummy option is present,	the simulation is not aborted in  case
	      of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
	      Set  driver  specific  options.  The  options are	specified as a
	      comma separated list.  To	 get  a	 list  of  valid  options  use
	      driveropts=help  together	 with  the -checkdrive option.	If you
	      like to set driver options without running  a  typical  cdrecord
	      task,  you need to use the -setdropts option in addition,	other-
	      wise the command line parser in cdrecord	will  complain.	  Cur-
	      rently implemented driver	options	are:

	      burnfree
		     Turn  the	support	 for  Buffer Underrun Free writing on.
		     This only works for drives	that support  Buffer  Underrun
		     Free  technology.	 This may be called: Sanyo BURN-Proof,
		     Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

		     The default is to turn BURN-Free off, regardless  of  the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noburnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

	      varirec=value
		     Turn  on  the Plextor VariRec writing mode. The mandatory
		     parameter value is	the laser power	offset	and  currently
		     may  be  selected from -2,	-1, 0, 1, 2.  In addition, you
		     need to set the write  speed  to  4  in  order  to	 allow
		     VariRec to	work.

	      gigarec=value
		     Manage  the  Plextor  GigaRec writing mode. The mandatory
		     parameter value is	the disk capacity  ratio  compared  to
		     normal  recording and currently may be selected from 0.6,
		     0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1,1, 1.2, 1.3,	1.4.  If values	<  1.0
		     are  used,	then the effect	is similar to the Yamaha Audio
		     Master Q. R.  feature. If values >	1.0 are	used, then the
		     disk capacity is increased.

		     Not  all drives support all GigaRec values.  When a drive
		     uses the GigaRec feature, the write speed is  limited  to
		     8x.

	      audiomaster
		     Turn on the Yamaha	Audio Master Q.	R.  feature which usu-
		     ally should result	in high	quality	 CDs  that  have  less
		     reading  problems	in  Hi-Fi  players.  As	this is	imple-
		     mented as a variant of the	Session	At Once	write mode, it
		     will  only	work if	you select SAO write mode and there is
		     no	need to	turn it	off.  The Audio	Master mode will  work
		     with  a limited speed but may also	be used	with data CDs.
		     In	Audio Master mode, the pits on the CD will be  written
		     larger  than  usual  so  the  capacity  of	 the medium is
		     reduced when turning this feature	on.   A	 74-minute  CD
		     will  only	 have a	capacity of 63 minutes if Audio	Master
		     is	active and the capacity	of  a  80-minute  CD  will  be
		     reduced to	68 minutes, the	capacity in will be reduced to
		     85% of the	original capacity.  On newer  Plextor  drives,
		     this  feature  is	also  present but the capacity will be
		     reduced to	86.66% of the  original	 capacity.  For	 other
		     factors  on Plextor drives, see the gigarec option	above.

	      forcespeed
		     Normally, modern drives know the highest  possible	 speed
		     for  different media and may reduce the speed in order to
		     grant best	write quality.	This technology	may be called:
		     Plextor  PowerRec,	Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum Write
		     Speed Control or similar.	 Some  drives  (e.g.  Plextor,
		     Ricoh  and	 Yamaha)  allow	 to force the drive to use the
		     selected speed even if the	medium	is  so	bad  that  the
		     write  quality  would  be	poor. This option tells	such a
		     drive to force to use the selected	 speed	regardless  of
		     the medium	quality.

		     Use this option with extreme care and note	that the drive
		     should know better	which medium will work at full	speed.
		     The  default is to	turn forcespeed	off, regardless	of the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noforcespeed
		     Turn off the force	speed feature.

	      speedread
		     Some ultra	high speed  drives  such  as  48x  and	faster
		     drives  from  Plextor  limit  the	read speed for unknown
		     media to e.g. 40x in order	to  avoid  damaged  disks  and
		     drives.   Using  this  option tells the drive to read any
		     media as fast as possible.	 Be very careful as  this  may
		     cause  the	 media	to  break  in the drive	while reading,
		     resulting in damaged media	and drive!

	      nospeedread
		     Turn off unlimited	read speed.

	      singlesession
		     Turn the drive into a single-session  only	 drive.	  This
		     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
		     with extremely non-standard  additional  (broken/illegal)
		     TOC entries in the	TOC from the second or higher session.
		     Some of these disks become	usable if only the information
		     from  the first session is	used.  You need	to enable Sin-
		     gle Session mode before you insert	the defective disk!

	      nosinglesession
		     Turn off single-session mode. The drive will again	behave
		     as	usual.

	      hidecdr
		     Hide the fact that	a medium might be a recordable medium.
		     This allows to make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and  applica-
		     tions  believe that the media in the drive	is not a CD-R.

	      nohidecdr
		     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

	      tattooinfo
		     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
		     image  size  information  for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature.
		     The images	always have a  line  length  of	 3744  pixels.
		     Line  number  0 (radius 0)	is mapped to the center	of the
		     disk.  If you know	the inner and outer radii you will  be
		     able  to  create  a  pre  distorted  image	that later may
		     appear undistorted	on the disk.

	      tattoofile=name
		     Use this option together with  -checkdrive	 to  write  an
		     image  prepared  for  the	Yamaha	DiskT@2	feature	to the
		     medium.  The file must be a file with raw image B&W  data
		     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
		     call to tattooinfo.  If the size of the image equals  the
		     maximum  possible size (3744 x 320	pixels), cdrecord will
		     use the first part	of the file. This first	part then will
		     be	written	to the leftover	space on the CD.

		     Note  that	the image must be mirrored to be readable from
		     the pick up side of the CD.

	      layerbreak
		     Switch a drive  with  DVD-R/DL  medium  into  layer  jump
		     recording	recording  mode	 and use automatic layer-break
		     position setup.

		     By	default,  DVD-R/DL  media  is  written	in  sequential
		     recording mode that completely fills up both layers.

	      layerbreak=value
		     Set  up  a	 manual	 layer-break  value  for  DVD-R/DL and
		     DVD+R/DL.	The specified layer-break value	 must  not  be
		     set  to less than half of the recorded data size and must
		     not be set	to more	than the remaining Layer 0 size	of the
		     medium.   The manual layer-break value needs to be	a mul-
		     tiple of the ECC sector size which	 is  16	 logical  2048
		     byte  sectors  in	case  of DVD media and 32 logical 2048
		     byte sectors in case of HD-DVD or BD media.

		     Cdrecord does not allow to	write DL media	in  case  that
		     the total amount of data is less then the Layer 0 size of
		     the medium	except when  a	manual	layer-break  has  been
		     specified by using	the layerbreak=value option.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing	the work.  Some	devices	(e.g. Philips)
	      need to eject the	medium before creating a  new  disk.  Doing  a
	      -dummy  test and immediately creating a real disk	would not work
	      on these devices.

       -fix   The disk will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC	for a  CD-reader  will
	      be  written).  This may be used, if for some reason the disk has
	      been written but not fixated. This  option  currently  does  not
	      work with	old TEAC drives	(CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -force Force  to	 continue  on  some errors. Be careful when using this
	      option.  Cdrecord	implements several  checks  that  prevent  you
	      from doing unwanted things like damaging CD-RW media by improper
	      drives. Many of the sanity checks	are disabled when  the	-force
	      option is	used.

	      This  option  also implements some tricks	that will allow	you to
	      blank bad	CD-RW disks.

       -format
	      Format a CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW/BD-RE  disc.	  Formatting  is  cur-
	      rently  only implemented for DVD+RW and BD-RE media.  A 'maiden'
	      DVD+RW or	BD-RE medium needs to  be  formatted  before  you  may
	      write to it.  However, as	cdrecord autodetects the need for for-
	      matting in this case and	auto  formats  the  medium  before  it
	      starts writing, the -format option is only needed	if you like to
	      forcibly reformat	a DVD+RW or BD-RE medium.

       fs=#   Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syn-
	      tax as in	dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the
	      size is taken in bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a	number
	      is  followed  directly  by the letter `b', `k', `m', `s' or `f',
	      the size is multiplied by	512, 1024, 1024*1024,  2048  or	 2352.
	      If  the size consists of numbers separated by `x'	or `*',	multi-
	      plication	of the two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k  will
	      specify a	FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

	      The  size	specified by the fs= argument includes the shared mem-
	      ory that is needed for administration. This is at	least one page
	      of  memory.   If	no fs= option is present, cdrecord will	try to
	      get the FIFO size	value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.   The
	      default FIFO size	is currently 4 MB.

	      The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real-time writing
	      process.	It allows to run a pipe	 from  mkisofs	directly  into
	      cdrecord.	  If  the  FIFO	is active and a	pipe from mkisofs into
	      cdrecord is used to create a CD, cdrecord	will abort prior to do
	      any  modifications  on  the  disk	if mkisofs dies	before writing
	      starts.  The recommended FIFO size is between 4 and  128 MBytes.
	      As  a  rule  of thumb, the FIFO size should be at	least equal to
	      the size of the internal buffer  of  the	CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder
	      and no more than half of the physical amount of RAM available in
	      the machine.  If the FIFO	size is	big enough, the	 FIFO  statis-
	      tics  will  print	a FIFO empty count of zero and a FIFO min fill
	      not below	20%.  It is not	wise to	use too	 much  space  for  the
	      FIFO.  If	 you need more than 8 MB to write a CD at a speed less
	      than 20x from an image  on  a  local  file  system  on  an  idle
	      machine, your machine is either underpowered, has	hardware prob-
	      lems or is mis-configured.  If you like  to  write  DVDs	or  to
	      write  CDs at higher speed, it makes sense to use	at least 16 MB
	      for the FIFO.

	      On old and small machines, you need to be	more careful with  the
	      FIFO  size.   If	your  machine has less than 256	MB of physical
	      RAM, you should not set up a FIFO	size that is more than	32 MB.
	      The sun4c	architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
	      table  entries  for  16 MBytes  per  process.  Using  more  than
	      14 MBytes	 for  the  FIFO	may cause the operating	system in this
	      case to spend much time to constantly  reload  the  MMU  tables.
	      Newer  machines  from Sun	do not have this MMU hardware problem.
	      The author has no	information on	PC  hardware  reflecting  this
	      problem.

	      Old  Linux systems for non-x86 platforms have broken definitions
	      for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
	      kernel or	manually tell cdrecord to use a	smaller	FIFO.

	      If  you  have  buffer underruns or similar problems (like	a con-
	      stantly empty drive-buffer) and observe a	zero fifo empty	count,
	      you  have	 hardware  problems that prevent the data from flowing
	      fast enough from the kernel memory to the	drive. The  FIFO  size
	      in  this	case is	sufficient, but	you should check for a working
	      DMA setup.

       gracetime=#
	      Set the grace time before	starting to write to # seconds.	  Val-
	      ues below	3 seconds are not allowed in order to prevent the vol-
	      ume management from interrupting the write process.

       -ignsize
	      Ignore the known size of the medium. This	option should be  used
	      with  extreme  care, it exists only for debugging	purposes so do
	      not use it for other reasons.  It	is not needed to  write	 disks
	      with more	than the nominal capacity.  This option	implies	-over-
	      burn.

       -immed Tell cdrecord to set the SCSI IMMED  flag	 in  certain  commands
	      (load,  eject,  blank, close_track, close_session).  This	can be
	      useful on	broken systems with ATAPI hard-disk and	 CD/DVD/BluRay
	      writer on	the same bus or	with SCSI systems that do not use dis-
	      connect/reconnect.  These	systems	will freeze while blanking  or
	      fixating	a  CD/DVD/BluRay or while a DVD	writer is filling up a
	      session to the minimum amount (approx.  800  MB).	  Setting  the
	      -immed flag will request the command to return immediately while
	      the operation proceeds in	background, making the bus usable  for
	      the  other  devices  and avoiding	the system freeze.  This is an
	      experimental feature which may work or  not,  depending  on  the
	      model  of	the CD/DVD/BluRay writer.  A correct solution would be
	      to set up	a correct cabling  but	there  seem  to	 be  notebooks
	      around  that have	been set up the	wrong way by the manufacturer.
	      As it is impossible to fix this problem in notebooks, the	-immed
	      option has been added.

	      A	 second	 experimental  feature	of  the	-immed flag is to tell
	      cdrecord to try to wait short times while	writing	to the	media.
	      This is expected to free the IDE bus if the CD/DVD/BluRay	writer
	      and the data source are connected	to the same IDE	cable. In this
	      case, the	CD/DVD/BluRay writer would otherwise usually block the
	      IDE bus for nearly all the time making it	 impossible  to	 fetch
	      data from	the source drive. See also the minbuf= and -v options.

	      Use both features	at your	own risk.  If it  turns	 out  that  it
	      would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
	      write to the author and convince him.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for	the drive, print  the  inquiry	info  for  the
	      drive and	exit.

       -load  Load  the	 media	and  exit. This	only works with	a tray-loading
	      mechanism	but seems to be	 useful	 when  using  the  Kodak  disk
	      transporter.

       -lock  Load  the	 media,	lock the door and exit.	This only works	with a
	      tray-loading mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the
	      Kodak disk transporter.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
	      Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to	med_cat_nr.

       minbuf=value
	      The  minbuf=  option  allows  to define the minimum drive-buffer
	      fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
	      to  free the IDE bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD/BluRay	writer
	      to be on the same	IDE cable.  As the wait	 mode  currently  only
	      works  when  the	verbose	option -v has been specified, cdrecord
	      implies the verbose option in case the -immed or minbuf=	option
	      has been specified.  Valid values	for minbuf= are	between	25 and
	      95 for 25%...95% minimum drive-buffer fill ratio.

       -media-info

       -minfo Retrieve and print information about the state  of  the  medium.
	      This option currently only works for MMC-compliant drives.

       -msinfo
	      Retrieve	multi-session info in a	form suitable for mkisofs-1.10
	      or later.

	      This option makes	only sense with	a CD that  contains  at	 least
	      one  closed  session and is appendable (not finally closed yet).
	      Some drives create error messages	if you try to get  the	multi-
	      session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -noclose
	      Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ-
	      ing mode.	 This is an experimental interface.

       -nofix Do  not  fixate  the  disk after writing the tracks. This	may be
	      used to create an	audio disk in steps. An	 un-fixated  disk  can
	      usually  not be used on a	non CD-writer type drive but there are
	      audio CD-players that will be able to play such a	disk.

       -overburn
	      Allow cdrecord to	write more than	the official size of a medium.
	      This  feature  is	 usually called	overburning and	depends	on the
	      fact that	most blank media may hold more space than the official
	      size.  As	 the official size of the lead-out area	on the disk is
	      90 seconds (6750 sectors)	and a disk usually works if there  are
	      at least 150 sectors of lead out,	all media may be overburned by
	      at least 88 seconds (6600	sectors).  Most	CD-recorders  only  do
	      overburning  in  SAO  or RAW mode. Known exceptions are TEAC CD-
	      R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.   Some  drives  do
	      not  allow  to  overburn as much as you might like and limit the
	      size of a	CD to e.g. 76 minutes. This  problem  may  be  circum-
	      vented  by writing the CD	in RAW mode because this way the drive
	      has no chance to find the	size before starting to	 burn.	 There
	      is  no  guarantee	 that  your drive supports overburning at all.
	      Make a test to check if your drive implements the	feature.

       -packet
	      Set Packet writing mode.	This is	an experimental	interface.

       pktsize=#
	      Set the packet size to #,	forces fixed packet mode.  This	is  an
	      experimental interface.

       -prcap Print  the drive capabilities for	SCSI-3/mmc-compliant drives as
	      obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values marked  with	 kB  use  1000
	      bytes  as	 kilo-byte,  values  marked  with KB use 1024 bytes as
	      Kilo-byte.

       -setdropts
	      Set the driveropts  specified  by	 driveropts=option  list,  the
	      speed  of	 the  drive  and the dummy flag	and exit.  This	allows
	      cdrecord to set drive specific parameters	that are not  directly
	      used  by	cdrecord  like e.g.  single session mode, hide cdr and
	      similar.	It is  needed  in  case	 that  driveropts=option  list
	      should  be  called  without  planning  to	run a typical cdrecord
	      task.

       speed=#
	      Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.	 # is an inte-
	      ger,  representing a multiple of what has	been defined as	single
	      speed for	the medium.

	      For CD-media, single speed is the	audio playback speed.  This is
	      about 150	KB/s for CD-ROM	and about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio.  Sin-
	      gle speed	is about 1385 kB/s for DVD media and  about  4496 kB/s
	      for BluRay media.

	      If  no speed option is present, cdrecord will try	to get a drive
	      specific speed value from	the file  /usr/local/etc/cdrecord  and
	      if  it  cannot find one, it will try to get the speed value from
	      the CDR_SPEED environment	and later from the CDR_SPEED= entry in
	      /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.	 If  no	 speed	value  could be	found,
	      cdrecord uses a drive specific default speed.  The  default  for
	      all  new	(MMC-compliant)	drives is to use the maximum supported
	      by the drive.  If	you use	speed=0	with  a	 MMC-compliant	drive,
	      cdrecord	will switch to the lowest possible speed for drive and
	      medium.  If you are using	an old (non-MMC) drive that has	 prob-
	      lems with	speed=2	or speed=4, you	should try speed=0.

       -text  Write CD-Text information	based on information taken from	a file
	      that contains ascii information for the text strings.   Cdrecord
	      supports	CD-Text	 information based on the content of the *.inf
	      files created by cdda2wav	and CD-Text information	based  on  the
	      content  from  a	CUE  sheet file.  If a CUE sheet file contains
	      both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
	      the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

	      You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
	      cdrecord to read the *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to
	      tell cdrecord to read a CUE sheet	file in	addition.  If you like
	      to write your own	CD-Text	information, edit the *.inf  files  or
	      the CUE sheet file with a	text editor and	change the fields that
	      are relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
	      Write CD-Text based on information  found	 in  the  binary  file
	      filename.	  This	file must contain information in a data	format
	      defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the  Red  Book.  The
	      four-byte-sized  header  that is defined in the SCSI standard is
	      optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
	      ambiguous.   This	 is the	best option to be used to copy CD-Text
	      data from	existing CDs that already carry	 CD-Text  information.
	      To  get  data  in	a format suitable for this option use cdrecord
	      -vv -toc	to  extract  the  information  from  disk.   If	 both,
	      textfile=filename	 and  CD-Text  information from	*.inf or *.cue
	      files are	present, textfile=filename will	 overwrite  the	 other
	      information.

       -toc   Retrieve	and  print  out	 the table of contents or PMA of a CD.
	      With this	option,	cdrecord will work with	CD-R drives  and  with
	      CD-ROM drives.

       -waiti Wait for input to	become available on standard input before try-
	      ing to open the SCSI driver. This	allows cdrecord	 to  read  its
	      input  from  a  pipe  even when writing additional sessions to a
	      multi-session disk.  When	writing	another	session	 to  a	multi-
	      session  disk,  mkisofs  needs  to read the old session from the
	      device before writing output.  This cannot be done  if  cdrecord
	      opens the	SCSI driver at the same	time.

       -useinfo
	      Use  *.inf  files	to overwrite audio options.  If	this option is
	      used, the	pregap size information, the  index  information,  the
	      pre-emphasis  information	 and  the  CD-Text information is read
	      from the *.inf file that is associated with the file  that  con-
	      tains the	audio data for a track.

	      If used together with the	-audio option, cdrecord	may be used to
	      write audio CDs from a pipe from cdda2wav	if you	call  cdrecord
	      with  the	 *.inf	files as track parameter list instead of using
	      audio files.  The	audio data is read from	stdin  in  this	 case.
	      See  EXAMPLES section below.  Cdrecord first verifies that stdin
	      is not connected to a terminal and runs some  heuristic  consis-
	      tency  checks on the *.inf files and then	sets the track lengths
	      from the information in the *.inf	files.

	      If you like to write from	stdin,	make  sure  that  cdrecord  is
	      called  with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the	write speed to
	      a	value below the	read speed of the source drive and switch  the
	      burn-free	option for the recording drive on.

   SCSI	options
       dev=target
	      Set  the	SCSI  target for the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder, see notes
	      above.  A	typical	target device specification is dev=1,6,0 .  If
	      a	 filename  must	be provided together with the numerical	target
	      specification, the filename  is  implementation  specific.   The
	      correct  filename	 in  this case can be found in the system spe-
	      cific manuals of the target operating system.  On	a FreeBSD sys-
	      tem  without  CAM	 support,  you	need to	use the	control	device
	      (e.g.  /dev/rcd0.ctl).  A	correct	device specification  in  this
	      case may be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

	    General SCSI addressing
	      The  target  device  to  the  dev= option	refers to the SCSI CAM
	      standard notation	for scsibus/target/lun of  the	CD/DVD/BluRay-
	      recorder.	 Communication	on SunOS is done with the SCSI general
	      driver scg.  Other operating systems are using a library simula-
	      tion  of	this  driver.	Possible  syntax is: dev= scsibus,tar-
	      get,lun or dev= target,lun.  In the latter case, the CD/DVD/Blu-
	      Ray-recorder  has	to be connected	to the default SCSI bus	of the
	      machine.	Scsibus, target	and lun	 are  integer  numbers.	  Some
	      operating	 systems or SCSI transport implementations may require
	      to specify a filename in addition.  In  this  case  the  correct
	      syntax  for the device is: dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun or
	      dev= devicename:target,lun.  If the name of the device node that
	      has  been	 specified on such a system refers to exactly one SCSI
	      device, a	shorthand in the form dev= devicename:@	or dev=	 devi-
	      cename:@,lun may be used instead of dev= devicename:scsibus,tar-
	      get,lun.

	    Remote SCSI	addressing
	      To access	remote SCSI devices, you  need	to  prepend  the  SCSI
	      device  name  by	a  remote  device indicator. The remote	device
	      indicator	is either REMOTE:user@host: or	REMOTE:host:  A	 valid
	      remote  SCSI  device  name  may  be:  REMOTE:user@host: to allow
	      remote SCSI bus scanning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the
	      SCSI  device  at host connected to SCSI bus # 1,target 0,	lun 0.
	      In order to allow	remote access to a specific host, the rscsi(1)
	      program needs to be present and configured on the	host.

	    Alternate SCSI transports
	      Cdrecord	is  completely	based  on SCSI commands	but this is no
	      problem as all CD/DVD/BluRay writers ever	made use SCSI commands
	      for  the	communication.	Even ATAPI drives are just SCSI	drives
	      that inherently use the ATA packet  interface  as	 SCSI  command
	      transport	 layer	build  into  the IDE (ATA) transport.  You may
	      need to specify an alternate  transport  layer  on  the  command
	      line  if	your  OS  does not implement a fully integrated	kernel
	      driver subsystem that allows to access any drive using SCSI com-
	      mands via	a single unique	user interface.

	      To  access SCSI devices via alternate transport layers, you need
	      to prepend the SCSI device name by a transport layer  indicator.
	      The  transport  layer  indicator may be something	like USCSI: or
	      ATAPI:.  To get a	list of	supported transport  layers  for  your
	      platform,	use dev= HELP:

	    Portability	Background
	      To make cdrecord portable	to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev=
	      devicename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as it hides  OS  spe-
	      cific knowledge about device names from the user.	 A specific OS
	      may not necessarily support a way	to specify a real device  file
	      name nor a way to	specify	scsibus,target,lun.

	      Scsibus 0	is the default SCSI bus	on the machine.	Watch the boot
	      messages for more	information or look  into  /var/run/dmesg.boot
	      for  more	 information  about  the  SCSI	configuration  of your
	      machine.	If you have problems to	figure	out  what  values  for
	      scsibus,target,lun  should  be  used, try	the -scanbus option of
	      cdrecord described below.

	    Using logical names	for devices
	      If no dev	option is present, cdrecord will try to	get the	device
	      from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

	      If a file	/usr/local/etc/cdrecord	exists,	and if the argument to
	      the dev= option or the CDR_DEVICE	environment does  not  contain
	      the  characters  ',',  '/',  '@'	or ':',	it is interpreted as a
	      device   label   name   that   was   defined   in	   the	  file
	      /usr/local/etc/cdrecord (see FILES section).

	    Autotarget Mode
	      If  no  dev= option and no CDR_DEVICE environment	is present, or
	      if it only contains a transport specifier	but no	address	 nota-
	      tion,  cdrecord  tries to	scan the SCSI address space for	CD-ROM
	      drives.  If exactly one is found,	this is	used by	default.

       debug=#,	-d
	      Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#)  or	increment  the
	      misc  debug  level  by  one  (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
	      equals to	debug=2.  This may help	to find	problems while opening
	      a	 driver	 for  libscg  as  well as with sector sizes and	sector
	      types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may be the  rea-
	      son for a	buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
	      Tell  the	scg-driver to modify the kernel	debug value while SCSI
	      commands are running.

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus	where the CD-recorder is located. This
	      does not work on all operating systems.

       -scanbus
	      Scan  all	 SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry
	      strings. This option may be used to find	SCSI  address  of  the
	      CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder  on a system.  The	numbers	printed	out as
	      labels are computed by: bus * 100	+ target

       -silent,	-s
	      Do not print out a status	report for failed SCSI commands.

       timeout=#
	      Set the default SCSI command timeout value to  #	seconds.   The
	      default  SCSI  command  timeout  is the minimum timeout used for
	      sending SCSI commands.  If a SCSI	command	fails due to  a	 time-
	      out, you may try to raise	the default SCSI command timeout above
	      the timeout value	of the failed command.	If  the	 command  runs
	      correctly	 with a	raised command timeout,	please report the bet-
	      ter timeout value	and the	corresponding command to the author of
	      the  program.  If	no timeout= option is present, a default time-
	      out of 40	seconds	is used.

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for	a single SCSI  command	to  #.
	      The  syntax  for the ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=#
	      or sdd bs=#.

	      If no ts=	option has been	 specified,  cdrecord  defaults	 to  a
	      transfer	size  of  63 kB.  If libscg gets lower values from the
	      operating	system,	the value is reduced to	the maximum value that
	      is  possible  with  the current operating	system.	 Sometimes, it
	      may help to further reduce the transfer size or to  enhance  it,
	      but  note	that it	may take a long	time to	find a better value by
	      experimenting with the ts= option.

       -V     Increment	the verbose level in respect of	SCSI command transport
	      by  one.	 This  helps  to  debug	 problems  during  the writing
	      process, that occur in the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.  If  you  get
	      incomprehensible	error messages you should use this flag	to get
	      more detailed output.  -VV will  show  data  buffer  content  in
	      addition.	 Using -V or -VV slows down the	process	and may	be the
	      reason for a buffer underrun.

TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-DA  (similar  to  Red Book) audio format.  The	file with data
	      for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
	      44100  samples/s.	  The  byte order should be the	following: MSB
	      left, LSB	left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB	left and  so  on.  The
	      track  should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to
	      put the master image of an audio track on	 a  raw	 disk  because
	      data will	be read	in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
	      process.

	      If a filename ends in .au	or .wav	the file is considered to be a
	      structured  audio	 data file.  Cdrecord assumes that the file in
	      this case	is a Sun audio file  or	 a  Microsoft  .WAV  file  and
	      extracts the audio data from the files by	skipping over the non-
	      audio header information.	 In all	 other	cases,	cdrecord  will
	      only  work  correctly if the audio data stream does not have any
	      header.  Because many structured audio  files  do	 not  have  an
	      integral	number of blocks (1/75th second	each) in length, it is
	      often necessary to specify the -pad option  as  well.   cdrecord
	      recognizes  that	audio  data  in	a .WAV file is stored in Intel
	      (little-endian) byte order, and will automatically byte-swap the
	      data if the CD-recorder requires big-endian data.	 Cdrecord will
	      reject any audio file that does not match	the Red	Book  require-
	      ments  of	 16-bit	 stereo	 samples  in  PCM coding at 44100 sam-
	      ples/second.

	      Using other structured audio data	formats	as input  to  cdrecord
	      will  usually work if the	structure of the data is the structure
	      described	above (raw pcm data in big-endian byte	order).	  How-
	      ever,  if	 the  data  format  includes a header, you will	hear a
	      click at the start of the	track.

	      If neither  -data	 nor  -audio  have  been  specified,  cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that	end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, the TOC type for	the  disk  is  set  to
	      CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -copy  If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      permission  to  be  copied  without  limit.   This option	has no
	      effect on	data tracks.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size is a multiple
	      of 2048 bytes.  The file	with  track  data  should  contain  an
	      ISO-9660	or  Rock  Ridge	filesystem image (see mkisofs for more
	      details).	If the track data is an	ufs filesystem image, fragment
	      size  should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives with 2 KB
	      sector size to be	used for reading.

	      -data is the default, if no other	flag is	present	and  the  file
	      does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file	types.

	      If neither  -data	 nor  -audio  have  been  specified,  cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that	end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       index=list
	      Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
	      separated	 list  of  numbers that	are counting from index	1. The
	      first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
	      must  be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75 seconds)
	      that represent the start of the indices. An index	 list  in  the
	      form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
	      2	100 seconds from the start of the track	and index 3  200  sec-
	      onds from	the start of the track.

       -isosize
	      Use the ISO-9660 file system size	as the size of the next	track.
	      This option is needed if you want	cdrecord to directly read  the
	      image  of	a track	from a raw disk	partition or from a TAO	master
	      CD. In the first case the	option -isosize	is needed to limit the
	      size of the CD to	the size of the	ISO filesystem.	 In the	second
	      case the option -isosize is  needed  to  prevent	cdrecord  from
	      reading  the  two	 run-out  blocks that are appended by each CD-
	      recorder in track-at-once	mode. These two	run-out	blocks	cannot
	      be  read	and  would  cause a buffer underrun that would cause a
	      defective	copy.

	      Note that	if this	option is used on files	 created  by  mkisofs,
	      the  padding data	that was added by mkisofs is lost and replaced
	      by padding added by cdrecord.  This may also change  the	amount
	      of padding.

	      In case cdrecord reads the track data from stdin,	only the first
	      track may	be used	with the -isosize option.

	      If -isosize is used for a	track, cdrecord	will automatically add
	      padding  for  this track as if the -pad option had been used but
	      the amount of padding may	be less	than the  padding  written  by
	      mkisofs.	Note that if you use -isosize on a track that contains
	      Sparc boot information, the boot information will	be lost.

	      Note also	that this option cannot	be used	to determine the  size
	      of a file	system if the -multi option is present.

       isrc=ISRC_number
	      Set  the	International  Standard	 Recording Number for the next
	      track to ISRC_number.

       -mode2 If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM mode 2 format. The	data size is a multiple	of 2336	bytes.

       -nocopy
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      permission to be copied only once	for personal use - this	is the
	      default.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks -	the default.

       -nopreemp
	      If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks will indicate that	the audio data has been	mastered  with
	      linear data - this is the	default.

       -noshorttrack
	      Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
	      least 4 seconds.

       -pad   If the track is a	data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will  be
	      added  to	 the  end  of this and each subsequent data track.  In
	      this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
	      It  will	remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.	If the
	      -pad option refers to an audio  track,  cdrecord	will  pad  the
	      audio  data to be	a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data pad-
	      ding is done with	binary	zeroes	which  is  equal  to  absolute
	      silence.

	      -pad remains valid until disabled	by -nopad.

       padsize=#
	      Set  the	amount	of  data to be appended	as padding to the next
	      track to #.  Opposed to the behavior of  the  -pad  option,  the
	      value  for  padsize=  is	reset  to  zero	 for  each  new	track.
	      Cdrecord assumes a sector	size of	2048 bytes  for	 the  padsize=
	      option,  independent  from  the real sector size and independent
	      from the write mode.  The	megabytes  mentioned  in  the  verbose
	      mode output however are counting the output sector size which is
	      e.g. 2448	bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96	 mode.	 See  the  fs=
	      option for possible arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 min-
	      utes on a	CD, you	may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this	option
	      if your CD-drive is not able to read the last sectors of a track
	      or if you	want to	be able	to read	the CD on a Linux system  with
	      the  ISO-9660  filesystem	 read-ahead  bug.  If an empty file is
	      used for track data, this	option may be used to  create  a  disk
	      that is entirely made of padding.	 This may e.g. be used to find
	      out how much overburning is possible with	a specific medium.

       -preemp
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks  will  indicate that the audio data has been sampled with
	      50/15 microsec pre-emphasis.  The	data however is	 not  modified
	      during  the  process  of	transferring  from file	to disk.  This
	      option has no effect on data tracks.

       pregap=#
	      Set the  pre-gap size for	the next track.	 This option currently
	      only makes sense with the	TEAC drive when	creating track-at-once
	      disks without the	2-second silence before	each track.
	      This option may go away in the future.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      no permission to be copied anymore.

       -shorttrack
	      Allow all	subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track	length
	      standard	which  requires	 a  minimum track length of 4 seconds.
	      This option is only useful when used in SAO or  RAW  mode.   Not
	      all  drives  support  this  feature.  The	 drive must accept the
	      resulting	CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is assumed to	 be  in	 byte-
	      swapped  (little-endian)	order.	 Some types of CD-writers e.g.
	      Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
	      be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
	      audio data to be presented  in  the  big-endian  (network)  byte
	      order  normally  used by the SCSI	protocol.  Cdrecord knows if a
	      CD-recorder needs	audio data in big- or little-endian order, and
	      corrects the byte	order of the data stream to match the needs of
	      the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data	stream
	      is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

	      Note  that the verbose output of cdrecord	will show you if swap-
	      ping is necessary	to make	the byte order of the input  data  fit
	      the required byte	order of the recorder.	Cdrecord will not show
	      you if the -swab flag was	actually present for a track.

       tsize=#
	      If the master image for the next track has been stored on	a  raw
	      disk,  use  this	option	to specify the valid amount of data on
	      this disk. If the	image of the next track	is stored in a regular
	      file,  the size of that file is taken to determine the length of
	      this track.  If the track	contains an ISO-9660 filesystem	 image
	      use the -isosize option to determine the length of that filesys-
	      tem image.
	      In Disk At Once mode and with some drives	that use the TEAC pro-
	      gramming	interface,  even in Track At Once mode,	cdrecord needs
	      to know the size of each track  before  starting	to  write  the
	      disk.   Cdrecord	now  checks this and aborts before starting to
	      write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs -print-size
	      before  and use the output (with `s' appended) as	an argument to
	      the tsize= option	of cdrecord (e.g. tsize=250000s).
	      See fs= option for possible arguments.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1	format.	The data size is a multiple of
	      2048 bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers will be  created  by  the
	      drive.  With this	option,	the write mode is the same as with the
	      -multi option.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1	format.	The data size is a multiple of
	      2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers are part of the user data
	      and  have	 to  be	 supplied by the application that prepares the
	      data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 2	format.	The data is a multiple of 2324
	      bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers	will be	created	by the	drive.

       -xamix If  this flag is present,	all subsequent tracks are written in a
	      way that allows a	mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2	form 1/2  format.  The
	      data  size is a multiple of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector sub-head-
	      ers are part of the user data and	have to	 be  supplied  by  the
	      application  that	 prepares the data to be written.  The CRC and
	      the P/Q parity ECC/EDC  information  (depending  on  the	sector
	      type)  have  to be supplied by the application that prepares the
	      data to be written.

EXAMPLES
       For all examples	below, it will be assumed that	the  machine  includes
       two  drives.   The reader is assumed to be target 1 on the primary SCSI
       bus.  The CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder	is assumed to be target	2 on the  pri-
       mary SCSI bus of	the machine.

       If there	is only	one drive in the machine, the dev= option may be omit-
       ted in the examples below, but in this case the examples	 for  replica-
       tion without intermediate files do not apply.

   Replicating an Audio	CD
       To copy an audio	CD in the most accurate	way, first run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 paraopts=proof -vall cddb=0	-B -Owav

       and then	run

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This  will  try	to  copy track indices and to read CD-Text information
       from disk.  If there is no CD-Text information, cdda2wav	 will  try  to
       get the information from	freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio	CD from	a pipe (without	intermediate files), first run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then	run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This will get all information (including	 track	size  info)  from  the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data	from stdin.

       If you like to write from stdin,	make sure that cdrecord	is called with
       a large enough FIFO size	(e.g.  fs=128m), reduce	the write speed	 to  a
       value  below  the  read speed of	the source drive (e.g.	speed=12), and
       switch the burn-free option  for	 the  recording	 drive	on  by	adding
       driveropts=burnfree.   For  the	same  reason, it is not	recommended to
       extract the audio data in paranoia mode in this case.

   Replicating a simple	CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
       To copy a simple	disk, first read the master using:

	   readcd dev=1,0 f=somefile

       Then write the disk using:

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v somefile

   Replicating a CD-ROM	in clone mode
       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

	   readcd dev=1,0 -clone f=somefile

       or (in case the CD contains many	sectors	that are unreadable by	inten-
       tion) by	calling:

	   readcd dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       This  will  create the files somefile and somefile.toc.	Then write the
       CD using:

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

   Creating an Audio CD
       To record a pure	CD-DA (audio) at single	speed, with  each  track  con-
       tained in files named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc.:

	   cdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -dao -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check  if  it will be OK to use double speed	for the	example	above,
       use the dummy write option:

	   cdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -dao -audio track*.cdaudio

   Creating a mixed Audio-Data CD
       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO-9660 filesystem from  cdimage.raw
       on  the first track, the	other tracks being audio tracks	from the files
       track01.cdaudio,	track02.cdaudio, etc.:

	   cdrecord -v dev=2,0 -dao cdimage.raw	-audio track*.cdaudio

   Creating a CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
       To record a pure	disk at	double speed, using data from the  file	 cdim-
       age.raw:

	   cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 -dao cdimage.raw

       To  create  an  image for an ISO-9660 filesystem	with Rock Ridge	exten-
       sions:

	   mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check	the resulting file before writing to disk on Solaris:

	   mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs	/dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       The fbk driver first appeared in	1988.

       Solaris 9 or newer comes	with a variant of the original fbk idea	called
       lofi.  The command for the lofi variant is:

	    mount -r -F	hsfs ` lofiadm -a /tmp/cdimage.raw ` /mnt

       Note that lofiadm needs absolute	path names.

       On Linux:

	   mount cdimage.raw -r	-t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
	   ls -lR /mnt
	   umount /mnt

       If  the	overall	speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of
       the filesystem is not too complex, cdrecord will	run  without  creating
       an image	of the ISO-9660	filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord -v -dao fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The  recommended	 minimum  FIFO	size  for  running  this pipeline is 4
       MBytes.	As the default FIFO size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs	to  be
       present	only if	you want to use	a different FIFO size.	If your	system
       is loaded, you should run mkisofs in the	real-time class	too.  To raise
       the priority of mkisofs replace the command

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree
       by
	   priocntl -e -c RT -p	59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

	   nice	--18 mkisofs -R	/master/tree

       on  systems  that  do  not  have	UNIX International-compliant real-time
       scheduling.

       Cdrecord	runs at	priority 59 on Solaris,	you should run mkisofs	at  no
       more  than  priority 58.	On other systems, you should run mkisofs at no
       less than nice --18.

       Creating	a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested  on
       a  Sparcstation-2  with	a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed
       when the	machine	was not	loaded.	 A faster machine may be able to  han-
       dle quad	speed also in the loaded case.

       To  handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting
       to write, first run

	   mkisofs -R -quiet -print-size /master/tree

       and then	run

	   mkisofs  -R	/master/tree  |	 cdrecord  -v  -dao  speed=2   dev=2,0
       tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by	the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

   Setting drive options
       To  set drive options without writing a disk (e.g. to switch a drive to
       single-session mode), run

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no disk is in the drive, call

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
	      This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable	to the
	      open  call  of the SCSI transport	library	or a label in the file
	      /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.

       CDR_SPEED
	      Sets the default	speed  value  for  writing  (see  also	-speed
	      option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
	      Sets the default size of the FIFO	(see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
	      If  this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow	you to
	      write at the full	RAW encoding  speed  a	single	CPU  supports.
	      This  will  create  high potential of buffer underruns. Use with
	      care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
	      If this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you  to
	      write  at	 the  full DMA speed the system	supports.  There is no
	      DMA reserve for reading the data that  is	 to  be	 written  from
	      disk.   This will	create high potential of buffer	underruns. Use
	      with care.

	      If this environment variable is set to the value	any,  cdrecord
	      allows  to write at any speed even though	it may fail later with
	      a	buffer underrun.

       RSH    If the RSH environment is	present, the  remote  connection  will
	      not be created via rcmd(3) but by	calling	the program pointed to
	      by RSH.  Use e.g.	 RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to  create  a	 secure	 shell
	      connection.

	      Note  that  this	forces cdrecord	to create a pipe to the	rsh(1)
	      program and disallows cdrecord to	directly  access  the  network
	      socket to	the remote server.  This makes it impossible to	set up
	      performance parameters and slows down the	connection compared to
	      a	root-initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
	      not be the program /usr/local/sbin/rscsi but the program pointed
	      to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server program name will
	      be ignored if you	log in using an	account	that has been  created
	      with a remote SCSI server	program	as login shell.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/cdrecord
	      Default	values	can  be	 set  for  the	following  options  in
	      /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.	 For   example:	  CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m   or
	      CDR_SPEED=2

	      CDR_DEVICE
		     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
		     to	the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
		     in	 the file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord that allows to iden-
		     tify a specific drive on the system.

	      CDR_SPEED
		     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also	-speed
		     option).

	      CDR_FIFOSIZE
		     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
		     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Any other	label
		     is	 an  identifier	 for  a	 specific drive	on the system.
		     Such an identifier	may not	contain	 the  characters  ',',
		     '/', '@' or ':'.

		     Each  line	 that follows a	label contains a TAB separated
		     list of items.  Currently,	four items are recognized: the
		     SCSI  ID  of  the drive, the default speed	that should be
		     used for this drive, the default FIFO size	that should be
		     used  for this drive and drive specific options. The val-
		     ues for speed and fifosize	may  be	 set  to  -1  to  tell
		     cdrecord  to  use	the  global  defaults.	 The value for
		     driveropts	may be set to "" if no driveropts are used.  A
		     typical line may look this	way:

		     teac1= 0,5,0   4	 8m   ""

		     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1	 -1   burnfree

		     This  tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at scsi-
		     bus 0, target 5, lun 0 and	should be used	with  speed  4
		     and  a FIFO size of 8 MB.	A second drive may be found at
		     scsibus 1,	target 6, lun 0	and uses the default speed and
		     the default FIFO size.

       *.inf  The  *.inf  files	are created by cdda2wav	where *	is replaced by
	      the actual audio	file  prefix.	They  are  read	 and  used  by
	      cdrecord in case cdrecord	was called with	the -useinfo option.

	      There are	three general types of parameters:

	      numerical	parameters
		     A	numerical  parameter  is a number and directly follows
		     the tag label without any quoting.

	      unquoted string type parameters
		     An	unquoted parameter is make from	one or more words that
		     directly  follow  the tag label.  How many	words from the
		     parameter list are	used by	cdrecord depends  on  the  tag
		     label.

	      quoted string type parameters
		     A string type parameter is	enclosed in single quotes. The
		     string starts after the first single quote	character that
		     follows  the  tag	label  and ends	before the last	single
		     quote on the same line.  It needs no escape sequences  in
		     case  that	a single quote appears inside the string.  Any
		     text to the right of the rightmost	single quote character
		     is	ignored.

	      The order	of the tag labels in the file is not important.

	      The following tag	labels may appear in a *.inf file:

	      CDINDEX_DISCID=
		     The  cdindex  disk	ID is used by the musicbrainz CD-data-
		     base.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

		     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord.

	      CDDB_DISCID=
		     The cddb disk ID is used by the cddb and the  freedb  CD-
		     database.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord.

	      MCN=   The  Media	Catalog	Number (MCN) is	a 13 digit number that
		     follows UPC/EAN-13	rules.

		     The data is used by cdrecord to create sub-channel	 data.

	      ISRC=  The  International	Standard Recording Code	(ISRC) is a 12
		     byte string that is created from two uppercase characters
		     for the country code, followed by three uppercase charac-
		     ters for the owner, followed by two digits	for  the  year
		     of	 recording  followed  by five digits for the recording
		     serial number.

		     To	increase the readability of the	ISRC tag, there	may be
		     a minus sign between every	two fields of the ISRC string.

		     The data is used by cdrecord to create sub-channel	 data.

	      Albumtitle=
		     The  Album	 Title	is the name of the disk	in the CD-Text
		     information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Tracktitle=
		     The Track Title is	the name of the	current	track  in  the
		     CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumperformer=
		     The Album Performer is the	global name of the of the per-
		     former of the disk	in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Performer=
		     The Performer is the name of the of the performer of  the
		     current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumsongwriter=
		     The  Album	 Songwriter  is	 the global name of the	of the
		     songwriter	of the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Songwriter=
		     The Songwriter is the name	of the of  the	songwriter  of
		     the current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumcomposer=
		     The  Album	Composer is the	global name of the of the com-
		     poser of the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Composer=
		     The Composer is the name of the of	the  composer  of  the
		     current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumarranger=
		     The  Album	 Arranger  is  the  global  name of the	of the
		     arranger of the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Arranger=
		     The Arranger is the name of the of	the  arranger  of  the
		     current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albummessage=
		     The  Album	Message	is the global message text of the disk
		     in	the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Message=
		     The Message is the	message	text of	the current  track  in
		     the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumclosed_info=
		     The  Album	 Closed_info is	the global closed info text of
		     the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Closed_info=
		     The Closed_info is	the closed info	text  of  the  current
		     track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Track= The parameter contains the	relative number	of the current
		     track on the original disk.  The first track  always  has
		     the track number 1, a hidden track	uses track number 0.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This  tag label is	ignored	by cdrecord except when	check-
		     ing the the Trackstart for	track #1.

	      Tracknumber=
		     The parameter contains the	absolute number	of the current
		     track,  taken  from  the  TOC  on the original disk.  The
		     first track on  the  original  disk  may  have  a	number
		     greater  than  1, a hidden	track always uses track	number
		     0.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This tag  label  is  currently  ignored  by  cdrecord  as
		     cdrecord  assigns	track  numbers when compiling the disk
		     information.

	      Trackstart=
		     The parameter contains the	track start offset in  sectors
		     on	 the  original disk.  If the current track becomes the
		     first track on the	new disk and  if  the  track  was  the
		     first  track  on  the  original disk.  cdrecord uses this
		     number to set up the offset for index 1 on	the new	 disk.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

	      Tracklength=
		     The  parameter  is	used by	cdrecord to set	up the size of
		     the track on the new disk.

		     This tag label uses an unquoted string type parameter  in
		     the form "sectors,	samples".

		     This label	is mandatory for cdrecord.

	      Pre-emphasis=
		     The  pre-emphasis	parameter controls whether the related
		     pre-emphasis bit  in  the	sub-channel  data  is  set  by
		     cdrecord.	 Permitted  values  for	this parameter are yes
		     and no.

		     This tag label uses an unquoted  string  type  parameter.
		     Valid values are yes and no.

	      Channels=
		     The  parameter  of	 this tag is the number	of channels on
		     the disk.	All CD-audio disks use	stereo	recording  and
		     thus a 2 is the correct parameter.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is currently ignored by	cdrecord.

	      Copy_permitted=
		     The  parameter  for  this	tag label contains information
		     about the copyright state of  a  track  on	 the  original
		     disk.

		     This  tag	label  uses an unquoted	string type parameter.
		     Valid values are:

		     yes    The	digital	copy permitted bit is set in  the  TOC
			    and	 in the	sub-channel data.  If this bit is set,
			    the	related	track is not copyright	protected  and
			    may	be copied infinitely.

		     no	    The	 digital  copy permitted bit is	not set	in the
			    TOC.  The digital copy permitted bit in  the  sub-
			    channel data alters	with 9.375 Hz.	This is	called
			    Serial Copy	Management System (SCMS).   The	 sense
			    of this track state	is to flag that	the creator of
			    the	CD does	not have the copyright	permission  to
			    create  copies  of	the related track. The related
			    track is copyright protected and  the  creator  of
			    the	CD thus	is just	given the permission to	create
			    one	single copy from fair use rights and  no  fur-
			    ther copies	are permitted from this	source.

		     once   The	 digital  copy permitted bit is	not set	in the
			    TOC	and in the sub-channel	data.	The  sense  of
			    this track state is	to flag	that the related track
			    is copyright protected and thus may	not  be	 coped
			    infinitely.	  One single copy from fair use	rights
			    is permitted.

		     Note that many CDs	sold by	the music industry  have  SCMS
		     flagged  for  one	or  more  tracks,  signalling that the
		     related content company does not  own  the	 copyright  to
		     make copies from this track.

	      Endianess=
		     The  parameter for	this tag is the	byte order used	in the
		     audio data	file that was created for this track.

		     This tag label uses an unquoted  string  type  parameter.
		     Valid values are little and big.

		     This  label  is  ignored  by cdrecord as the endianess is
		     retrieved from the	audio file format.

	      Index= The parameter list	for this tag is	a list of numbers that
		     are  sector  numbers  counting  relatively	to the logical
		     beginning of the track (which always is at	index #1).  As
		     any  track	needs to have an entry for index #1, the first
		     entry in the list is  always  0.	If  more  entries  are
		     present  for  this	tag, there are more offset values that
		     correspond	to index values	greater	than 1.

		     This tag label uses an  unquoted  string  type  parameter
		     that contains a list of space separated index offset num-
		     bers.

	      Index0=
		     The parameter for this tag	is a  number  that  represents
		     the  number of sectors relatively to the beginning	(index
		     #1) of this track.	 This number identifies	where index #0
		     of	 the next track	begins.	It the parameter is set	to -1,
		     the next track has	no index #0, resulting in pregap  size
		     0 for the next track.

		     Note  that	cdrecord strictly follows the CD-standard that
		     defines that the logical beginning	of a track is  at  the
		     location  where  index #1 starts in this track.  If index
		     #0	for track n contains audio  data,  the	related	 audio
		     data is a logical part of track n-1.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

	      MD5-offset=
		     The  parameter  for this tag is the byte offset where the
		     raw audio data begins in the related audio	file.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is ignored by cdrecord.

	      MD5-size=
		     The parameter for this tag	is the number of bytes of  raw
		     audio data	in the related audio file.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is ignored by cdrecord.

	      MD5-sum=
		     The  parameter  for  this	tag is the md5 sum for the raw
		     audio data	in the related audio file.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is ignored by cdrecord.

       *.cue  The *.cue	files are CD-structure description files introduced by
	      CDRWIN.  They are	read and used by cdrecord in case cdrecord was
	      called with the cuefile=name.cue option.

	      The following commands are supported in CUE files:

	      ARRANGER arranger-string
		     This command is used to specify the name  of  a  arranger
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The  parameter  is	 the name of a arranger. If the	string
		     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed	 in  quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the ARRANGER command appears before any	TRACK command,
		     the string	parameter will be encoded as the  arranger  of
		     the entire	disk.  If the ARRANGER command appears after a
		     TRACK command, the	string parameter will be  encoded  the
		     the arranger of the current track.

		     This  command  is	only accepted if the cdrecord specific
		     CUE extensions are	permitted.

	      CATALOG media-catalog-number
		     This command is used to specify the disc's	Media  Catalog
		     Number.   The  media-catalog-number  is a 13 digit	number
		     that follows UPC/EAN-13 rules.

		     This command can appear only once in the CUE SHEET	 file.
		     It	must appear before any TRACK command.

	      CDTEXTFILE filename
		     This  command  is used to specify the name	of a file that
		     contains binary encoded CD-Text information.  CDRWIN only
		     accepts  headerless  binary  encoded CD-Text information,
		     but cdrecord also accepts binary encoded CD-Text informa-
		     tion  with	an MMC-compliant header.  The CD-Text informa-
		     tion is ignored by	cdrecord unless	the  -text  option  is
		     used.

		     If	 the  filename contains	spaces,	it must	be enclosed in
		     quotation marks.

	      COMPOSER composer-string
		     This command is used to specify the name  of  a  composer
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The  parameter  is	 the name of a composer. If the	string
		     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed	 in  quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the COMPOSER command appears before any	TRACK command,
		     the string	parameter will be encoded as the  composer  of
		     the entire	disk.  If the COMPOSER command appears after a
		     TRACK command, the	string parameter will be  encoded  the
		     the composer of the current track.

		     This  command  is	only accepted if the cdrecord specific
		     CUE extensions are	permitted.

	      FILE filename filetype
		     This command is used to specify a data or audio file that
		     contains data to be written to the	medium.

		     If	 the  filename contains	spaces,	it must	be enclosed in
		     quotation marks.

		     The following values are allowed for the file type	param-
		     eter:

		     BINARY	 Intel binary file (LSB	first)

		     MOTOTOLA	 Motorola binary file (MSB first)

		     AIFF	 Audio AIFF file

		     WAVE	 Audio WAVE file

		     MP3	 Audio MP3 file

		     AU		 Audio AU file (only permitted if cdrecord CUE
				 extensions are	enabled)

		     OGG	 Audio OGG file	(only  permitted  if  cdrecord
				 CUE extensions	are enabled)

		     All  audio	files (WAVE, AIFF, MP3,	AU and OGG) must be in
		     44100 Hz 16 bit stereo format.  MP3 and OGG is  currently
		     unsupported.

		     If	an audio file is not an	exact multiple of a CDROM sec-
		     tor (2352 bytes), then is is padded with zeroes  to  fill
		     up	to the needed size.

		     All  FILE commands	need to	be before a related TRACK com-
		     mand and after the	last INDEX command or POSTGAP  command
		     for the previous track.

		     If	the cdrecord specific CUE extensions are enabled, then
		     a FILE command may	also appear between an INDEX 00	and an
		     INDEX 01 command.	This allows to let the create one file
		     per track where the file starts at	INDEX 01 of the	 track
		     and  enda after INDEX 00 of the following track.  In this
		     case, no FILE command is allowed before the related TRACK
		     command.

	      FLAGS flags
		     This  command is used to set special subcode flags	within
		     a track.

		     The following flags are supported:

		     DCP	 Digital copy permitted

		     4CH	 Four channel audio

		     PRE	 Pre-emphasis enabled (audio tracks only)

		     SCMS	 Serial	copy management	system (not  supported
				 by all	recorders)

		     More  than	 one  flag  type argument may appear after the
		     FLAGS command (e.g	FLAGS DCP PRE).

		     The FLAGS command must appear after a TRACK  command  but
		     before  any  INDEX	 command.   Only  one FLAGS command is
		     allower per TRACK command.

		     The fourth	subcode	flag that marks	 data  tracks  is  set
		     automatically for data tracks.

	      INDEX number mm:ss:ff
		     This command is used to specify indexes within a track.

		     The  first	 parameter  is	the  index number in the range
		     0-99.

		     The second	parameter is a relative	time in	minutes,  sec-
		     onds and frames (there are	75 frames/second).

		     All  index	 numbers  must	be between 0 and 99 inclusive.
		     The first index for a track must be either	0  or  1  with
		     all indexes being sequential to the first one.  The first
		     index for a file must start at 00:00.00.

		     INDEX 00  specifies the starting time of  the  pregap  of
			       the track.

		     INDEX 01  specifies the starting time of the track.  This
			       is the index that is stored  in	the  table  of
			       content for the disk as the track start.

		     INDEX > 1 specifies a subindex within a track.

	      ISRC recording code
		     This  command  is used to specify the International Stan-
		     dard Recording Code (ISRC)	of a track.  This  is  a  code
		     that should exist for all commercial audio	tracks.

		     The ISRC code must	be 12 characters in length.  The first
		     two characters are	characters that	are from the two char-
		     acter  country  code.   The  next	three  characters  are
		     alphanumeric and describe the studio code.	 The next  two
		     characters	 are  the  last	 two digits from the recording
		     year.  The	last 5	characters  are	 digits	 that  form  a
		     serial  number  that  is  unique  for the same studio and
		     year.

		     If	cdrecord specific CUE extensions  are  permitted,  the
		     four fields of the	ISRC may be separated by a minus sign.

		     If	the ISRC command is used, it must appear after a TRACK
		     command but before	any INDEX command.

	      MESSAGE message-string
		     This command is used to specify the test of a message for
		     a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The parameter is the test of a  message.  If  the	string
		     contains  any  spaces,  it	 must be enclosed in quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the MESSAGE command appears before any TRACK  command,
		     the  string  parameter  will be encoded as	the message of
		     the entire	disk.  If the MESSAGE command appears after  a
		     TRACK  command,  the string parameter will	be encoded the
		     the message of the	current	track.

		     This command is only accepted if  the  cdrecord  specific
		     CUE extensions are	permitted.

	      PERFORMER	performer-string
		     This  command  is used to specify the name	of a performer
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The parameter is the name of the performer. If the	string
		     contains  any  spaces,  it	 must be enclosed in quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the PERFORMER command appears before  any  TRACK  com-
		     mand,  the	 string	 parameter will	be encoded as the per-
		     former of the entire  disk.   If  the  PERFORMER  command
		     appears  after a TRACK command, the string	parameter will
		     be	encoded	the the	performer of the current track.

	      POSTGAP mm:ss:ff
		     This command is used to specify the length	of  a  postgap
		     at	 the  end  of  a track.	 The postgap data is generated
		     internally	by cdrecord.  No data  is  consumed  from  the
		     current data file.

		     The  parameter  specifies	the postgap length in minutes,
		     seconds and frames.

		     The POSTGAP command must appear after all INDEX  commands
		     for  the  current	track.	 Only  one  POSTGAP command is
		     allowed per track.

	      PREGAP mm:ss:ff
		     This command is used to specify the length	of a pregap at
		     the  beginning  of	a track.  The pregap data is generated
		     internally	by cdrecord.  No data  is  consumed  from  the
		     current data file.

		     The  parameter  specifies	the postgap length in minutes,
		     seconds and frames.

		     The PREGAP	command	must appear after a TRACK command  but
		     before  any  INDEX	 command.   Only one PREGAP command is
		     allowed per track.

	      REM comment
		     This command is used to put comments into a CUE file.

		     The text that appears in the line after a REM command  is
		     usually  ignored. There is	an exception: The special com-
		     ment REM CDRTOOLS is used to enable cdrecord specific CUE
		     extensions	in the parser.

	      SONGWRITER songwriter-string
		     This  command is used to specify the name of a songwriter
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The parameter is the name of a songwriter.	If the	string
		     contains  any  spaces,  it	 must be enclosed in quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the SONGWRITER command appears before any  TRACK  com-
		     mand,  the	 string	parameter will be encoded as the song-
		     writer of the entire disk.	  If  the  SONGWRITER  command
		     appears  after a TRACK command, the string	parameter will
		     be	encoded	the the	songwriter of the current track.

	      TITLE title-string
		     This command is used to specify a title for a  disk  that
		     includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The  parameter  is	the title for a	track or for the disk.
		     If	the string contains any	spaces,	it must	be enclosed in
		     quotation marks.

		     If	 the  TITLE  command appears before any	TRACK command,
		     the string	parameter will be encoded as the title of  the
		     entire  disk.  If the TITLE command appears after a TRACK
		     command, the string parameter will	 be  encoded  the  the
		     title of the current track.

	      TRACK number datatype
		     This command is used to start a new TRACK.

		     The  first	parameter is a track number in the range 1-99.

		     The second	parameter specifies the	track data type.

		     The following datatypes are permitted:

		     AUDIO	 Audio/Music (2352)

		     CDG	 Karaoke CD+G (2448)

		     MODE1/2048	 CDROM Mode1 Data (cooked)

		     MODE1/2352	 CDROM Mode1 Data (raw)

		     MODE2/2336	 CDROM-XA Mode2	Data

		     MODE2/2352	 CDROM-XA Mode2	Data

		     CDI/2336	 CDI Mode2 Data

		     CDI/2352	 CDI Mode2 Data

		     All track numbers must be between	1  and	99  inclusive.
		     The  first	 track number can be greater than one, but all
		     track numbers after the first must	be sequential.	 There
		     must be at	least one track	per file.

SEE ALSO
       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), mkisofs(8), rcmd(3), ssh(1).

NOTES
       Not  all	options	described in this manual may be	supported by the Open-
       Source variant of cdrecord. Cdrecord issues a warning if	an attempt  is
       made to use an option that has been disabled in the OpenSource variant.

       On Solaris before Solaris 10 Update 1, you need to stop the volume man-
       agement if you like to use the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even
       things like cdrecord -scanbus will not work if the volume management is
       running.

       Disks  made  in	Track  At  Once	 mode are not suitable as a master for
       direct mass production by CD-manufacturers.  You	will need the disk  at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At Once will normally be	read in	all CD-players.	 Some  old  audio  CD-
       players	however	 may  produce  a  two  second  click between two audio
       tracks.

       The minimal size	of a track is 4	seconds	or 300 sectors.	If  you	 write
       smaller	tracks,	 the CD-recorder will add dummy	blocks.	This is	not an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       Cdrecord	has been tested	on an upgraded	Philips	 CDD-521  recorder  at
       single  and  double  speed  on  a SparcStation 20/502 with no problems,
       slower computer systems should work also.  The  newer  Philips/HP/Plas-
       mon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and	CDR-102	work also. The
       Plasmon RF-4100 works, but has not been	tested	in  multi-session.   A
       Philips	CDD-521	 that  has  not	been upgraded will not work.  The Sony
       CDU-924 has been	tested,	but does not  support  XA-mode2	 in  hardware.
       The  Sony  therefore cannot create conforming multi-session disks.  The
       Ricoh RO-1420C works, but some people seem to have problems to use them
       with speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The  Yamaha  CDR-400  and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming drives are sup-
       ported in single	and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the  -dummy  option  turned  on if you are using	cdrecord on an unknown
       system. Writing a CD is a  real-time  process.	NFS  will  not	always
       deliver	constantly the needed data rates.  If you want to use cdrecord
       with CD-images that are located on a NFS	mounted	 filesystem,  be  sure
       that the	FIFO size is big enough.  The author used cdrecord with	medium
       load on a SS20/502 and even at quad speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was
       heavily	loaded,	 but  it is recommended	to leave the system as lightly
       loaded as possible while	writing	a CD.  If you want to make  sure  that
       buffer  underruns  are  not caused by your source disk, you may use the
       command

	   cdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m	/dev/null

       to create a disk	that is	entirely made of dummy data.   Cdrecord	 needs
       to  run	as root	to get access to the /dev/scg?	device nodes and to be
       able to lock itself into	memory.

       If you don't want to  allow  users  to  become  root  on	 your  system,
       cdrecord	 may safely be installed suid root. This allows	all users or a
       group of	users with no root privileges to use  cdrecord.	  Cdrecord  in
       this  case  checks  if  the  real user would have been able to read the
       specified files.	 To give all users access to use cdrecord, enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to cdrecord enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never give write	permissions  for  non  root  users  to	the  /dev/scg?
       devices	unless	you  would allow anybody to read/write/format all your
       disks.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/recon-
       nect to either the SCSI bus that	is connected to	the CD-recorder	or the
       source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and	data tracks, the  data	should
       be  on  track  1	 otherwise  you	should create a	CDplus disk which is a
       multi-session disk with the first session containing the	 audio	tracks
       and the following session containing the	data track.

       Many  operating	systems	 are  not able to read more than a single data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       More information	on the SCSI command set	of a  HP  CD-recorder  can  be
       found at:

	    http://www.hp.com/isgsupport/cdr/index.html

       If  you	have  more  information	 or SCSI command manuals for currently
       unsupported CD/DVD/BluRay-recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-recorder (even in	the upgraded version) has sev-
       eral  firmware  bugs.  Some  of	them will force	you to power cycle the
       device or to reboot the machine.

       When using cdrecord with	the Linux SCSI generic driver, you should note
       that  cdrecord uses a layer, that tries to emulate the functionality of
       the scg driver on top of	the drives  of	the  local  operating  system.
       Unfortunately, the sg driver on Linux has several flaws:

       o      It cannot	see if a SCSI command could not	be sent	at all.

       o      It  cannot  get  the SCSI	status byte.  Cdrecord for that	reason
	      cannot report failing SCSI commands in some situations.

       o      It cannot	get real DMA count of transfer.	 Cdrecord cannot  tell
	      you if there is a	DMA residual count.

       o      It  cannot  get  number  of  bytes  valid	 in  auto  sense data.
	      Cdrecord cannot tell you if device transfers no  sense  data  at
	      all.

       o      It fetches too few data in auto request sense (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3
	      needs >= 18).

       The FIFO	percent	output is computed just	after a	block of data has been
       written	to  the	 CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.  For  this reason, there will
       never be	100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       You have	9 seconds to type ^C to	abort cdrecord after you see the  mes-
       sage:

       Starting	to write CD at speed %d	in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks	like:

	      cdrecord:	I/O error. test	unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  00 20 00 00	00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00	0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00	00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s	timeout	40s

       The  first  line	 gives information about the transport of the command.
       The text	after the first	colon gives the	error text for the system call
       from  the  view	of  the	 kernel. It usually is:	I/O error unless other
       problems	happen.	The next words contain a  short	 description  for  the
       SCSI  command  that fails. The rest of the line tells you if there were
       any problems for	the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.	 fatal
       error  means that it was	not possible to	transport the command (i.e. no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block	for the	failed
       command.

       The  third  line	 gives information on the SCSI status code returned by
       the command, if the transport of	the command succeeds.  This  is	 error
       information from	the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex	dump of	the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The fifth line is the error text	for the	sense key if  available,  fol-
       lowed  by  the  segment number which is only valid if the command was a
       copy command. If	the error message is not directly related to the  cur-
       rent command, the text deferred error is	appended.

       The sixth line is the error text	for the	sense code and the sense qual-
       ifier if	available.  If the type	of the device is known,	the sense data
       is  decoded  from  tables  in scsierrs.c	.  The text is followed	by the
       error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line	prints the block number	that is	related	to the	failed
       command	and  text for several error flags. The block number may	not be
       valid.

       The eighth line reports the timeout set up for  this  command  and  the
       time that the command really needed to complete.

       The following message is	not an error:

	      Track 01:	Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
	      cdrecord:	I/O error. flush cache:	scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  35 00 00 00	00 00 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27	0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00	00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy	data blocks added) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s	timeout	40s

       It  simply  notifies that a track that is smaller than the minimum size
       has been	expanded to 300	sectors.

BUGS
       Cdrecord	has even more options than ls.

       There should be a recover option	to make	disks usable, that  have  been
       written during a	power failure.

CREDITS
       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
		      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
		      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
		      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
		      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
		      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
		      For  creating  the  experimental packet writing support,
		      the first	implementation of CD-RW	blanking support,  the
		      first  .wav  file	 decoder  and many nice	discussions on
		      cdrecord.

       Chris P.	Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
		      For the first implementation of a	BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R.	Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
		      For creating the first parallel port transport implemen-
		      tation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry	(ken@kdm.org)
		      for  providing  the  CAM	port for FreeBSD together with
		      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
		      for making libedc_ecc available  (needed	to  write  RAW
		      data sectors).

MAILING	LISTS
       If  you	want to	actively take part on the development of cdrecord, you
       may join	the developer mailing list via this URL:

       https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-developers

AUTHOR
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Additional information can be found on:
       http://cdrecord.org/private/cdrecord.html

       If you have support questions, send them	to:

       cdrtools-support@lists.sourceforge.net

       If you have definitely found a bug, send	a mail to:

       cdrtools-developers@lists.sourceforge.net
       or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

       To subscribe, use:

       https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-developers
       or https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-support

INTERFACE STABILITY
       The interfaces provided by cdrecord are designed	for long term  stabil-
       ity.   As  cdrecord  depends  on	 interfaces provided by	the underlying
       operating system, the stability of the interfaces offered  by  cdrecord
       depends	on  the	 interface  stability  of the OS interfaces.  Modified
       interfaces in the OS may	enforce	modified interfaces in cdrecord.

Joerg Schilling		    Version 3.02 2015/11/03		   CDRECORD(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GENERAL OPTIONS | TRACK OPTIONS | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | SEE ALSO | NOTES | DIAGNOSTICS | BUGS | CREDITS | MAILING LISTS | AUTHOR | INTERFACE STABILITY

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