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ATH(4)		       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			ATH(4)

NAME
     ath -- Atheros IEEE 802.11	wireless network driver

SYNOPSIS
     To	compile	this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

	   device ath
	   device ath_hal
	   options AH_SUPPORT_AR5416
	   device ath_rate_sample
	   device wlan

     Alternatively, to load the	driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):

	   if_ath_load="YES"

DESCRIPTION
     The ath driver provides support for wireless network adapters based on
     the Atheros AR5210, AR5211, AR5212, and AR5416 programming	APIs.  These
     APIs are used by a	wide variety of	chips; most all	chips with a PCI
     and/or CardBus interface are supported.

     Supported features	include	802.11 and 802.3 frames, power management,
     BSS, IBSS,	MBSS, TDMA, and	host-based access point	operation modes.  All
     host/device interaction is	via DMA.

     The ath driver encapsulates all IP	and ARP	traffic	as 802.11 frames, how-
     ever it can receive either	802.11 or 802.3	frames.	 Transmit speed	and
     operating mode is selectable and depends on the specific chipset.
     AR5210-based devices support 802.11a operation with transmit speeds of 6
     Mbps, 9 Mbps, 12 Mbps, 18 Mbps, 24	Mbps, 36 Mbps, 48 Mbps,	and 54 Mbps.
     AR5211-based devices support 802.11a and 802.11b operation	with transmit
     speeds as above for 802.11a operation and 1Mbps, 2Mbps, 5.5 Mbps and
     11Mbps for	802.11b	operation.  AR5212-based devices support 802.11a,
     802.11b, and 802.11g operation with transmit speeds appropriate to	each.
     AR5416-class devices are capable of 802.11n operation but are supported
     only in legacy modes (802.11a, 11b, 11g).	Most chips also	support	an
     Atheros Turbo Mode	(TM) that operates in the 5Ghz frequency range with 2x
     the transmit speeds.  Some	chips also support Turbo mode in the 2.4Ghz
     range with	802.11g	though this support is not presently available due to
     regulatory	requirements.  (Note that Turbo	modes are, however, only
     interoperable with	other Atheros-based devices.)  AR5212-based devices
     also support half-	(10MHz)	and quarter-width (5MHz) channels.  The	actual
     transmit speed used is dependent on signal	quality	and the	``rate
     control'' algorithm employed by the driver.  All chips support WEP
     encryption.  AR5212 and AR5416 parts have hardware	support	for the	AES-
     CCM, TKIP,	and Michael cryptographic operations required for WPA.	To
     enable encryption,	use ifconfig(8)	as shown below.

     The driver	supports station, adhoc, adhoc-demo, hostap, mesh, wds,	and
     monitor mode operation.  Multiple hostap virtual interfaces may be	con-
     figured for simultaneous use on cards that	use a 5212 part.  When multi-
     ple interfaces are	configured each	may have a separate mac	address	that
     is	formed by setting the U/L bits in the mac address assigned to the
     underlying	device.	 Any number of wds virtual interfaces may be config-
     ured together with	hostap interfaces.  Multiple station interfaces	may be
     operated together with hostap interfaces to construct a wireless repeater
     device.  The driver also support tdma operation when compiled with
     options IEEE80211_SUPPORT_TDMA (which also	enables	the required 802.11
     support).	For more information on	configuring this device, see
     ifconfig(8).

     Devices supported by the ath driver come in either	Cardbus	or mini-PCI
     packages.	Wireless cards in Cardbus slots	may be inserted	and ejected on
     the fly.

HARDWARE
     The ath driver supports all Atheros Cardbus and PCI cards,	except those
     that are based on the AR5005VL chipset.

     A list of cards that are supported	can be found at
     http://customerproducts.atheros.com/customerproducts/default.asp.

EXAMPLES
     Join an existing BSS network (ie: connect to an access point):

	   ifconfig ath0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00

     Join a specific BSS network with network name ``my_net'':

	   ifconfig ath0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with WEP encryption:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0
	   ifconfig wlan0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   wepmode on wepkey 0x8736639624

     Join/create an 802.11b IBSS network with network name ``my_net'':

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode adhoc
	   ifconfig wlan0 inet 192.168.0.22 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   mode	11b

     Create an 802.11g host-based access point:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode hostap
	   ifconfig wlan0 inet 192.168.0.10 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap \
		   mode	11g

     Create an 802.11a mesh station:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode mesh
	   ifconfig wlan0 meshid my_mesh mode 11a inet 192.168.0.10/24

     Create two	virtual	802.11a	host-based access points, one with with	WEP
     enabled and one with no security, and bridge them to the fxp0 (wired)
     device:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode hostap \
		   ssid	paying-customers wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890	\
		   mode	11a up
	   ifconfig wlan1 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode hostap bssid \
		   ssid	freeloaders up
	   ifconfig bridge0 create addm	wlan0 addm wlan1 addm fxp0 up

     Create a master node in a two slot	TDMA BSS configured to use 2.5 mil-
     lisecond slots.

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode tdma \
		   ssid	tdma-test tmdaslot 0 tdmaslotlen 2500 \
		   channel 36 up

DIAGNOSTICS
     ath%d: unable to attach hardware; HAL status %u  The Atheros Hardware
     Access Layer was unable to	configure the hardware as requested.  The sta-
     tus code is explained in the HAL include file sys/contrib/dev/ath/ah.h.

     ath%d: failed to allocate descriptors: %d	The driver was unable to allo-
     cate contiguous memory for	the transmit and receive descriptors.  This
     usually indicates system memory is	scarce and/or fragmented.

     ath%d: unable to setup a data xmit	queue!	The request to the HAL to set
     up	the transmit queue for normal data frames failed.  This	should not
     happen.

     ath%d: unable to setup a beacon xmit queue!  The request to the HAL to
     set up the	transmit queue for 802.11 beacon frames	frames failed.	This
     should not	happen.

     ath%d: 802.11 address: %s	The MAC	address	programmed in the EEPROM is
     displayed.

     ath%d: hardware error; resetting  An unrecoverable	error in the hardware
     occurred.	Errors of this sort include unrecoverable DMA errors.  The
     driver will reset the hardware and	continue.

     ath%d: rx FIFO overrun; resetting	The receive FIFO in the	hardware over-
     flowed before the data could be transferred to the	host.  This typically
     occurs because the	hardware ran short of receive descriptors and had no
     place to transfer received	data.  The driver will reset the hardware and
     continue.

     ath%d: unable to reset hardware; hal status %u  The Atheros Hardware
     Access Layer was unable to	reset the hardware as requested.  The status
     code is explained in the HAL include file sys/contrib/dev/ath/ah.h.  This
     should not	happen.

     ath%d: unable to start recv logic	The driver was unable to restart frame
     reception.	 This should not happen.

     ath%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis-
     sion did not complete in time.  The driver	will reset the hardware	and
     continue.	This should not	happen.

     ath%d: bogus xmit rate 0x%x  An invalid transmit rate was specified for
     an	outgoing frame.	 The frame is discarded.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: ath_chan_set: unable to reset channel %u (%u MHz)  The Atheros
     Hardware Access Layer was unable to reset the hardware when switching
     channels during scanning.	This should not	happen.

     ath%d: failed to enable memory mapping  The driver	was unable to enable
     memory-mapped I/O to the PCI device registers.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: failed to enable bus mastering  The	driver was unable to enable
     the device	as a PCI bus master for	doing DMA.  This should	not happen.

     ath%d: cannot map register	space  The driver was unable to	map the	device
     registers into the	host address space.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: could not map interrupt  The driver	was unable to allocate an IRQ
     for the device interrupt.	This should not	happen.

     ath%d: could not establish	interrupt  The driver was unable to install
     the device	interrupt handler.  This should	not happen.

SEE ALSO
     ath_hal(4), cardbus(4), intro(4), pcic(4),	wlan(4), wlan_ccmp(4),
     wlan_tkip(4), wlan_wep(4),	wlan_xauth(4), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8),
     wpa_supplicant(8)

HISTORY
     The ath device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 5.2.

CAVEATS
     Revision A1 of the	D-LINK DWL-G520	and DWL-G650 are based on an Intersil
     PrismGT chip and are not supported	by this	driver.

BUGS
     There is no software retransmit; only hardware retransmit is used.

     The driver	does not fully enable power-save operation of the chip in sta-
     tion mode;	consequently power use is suboptimal (e.g. on a	laptop).

     WPA is not	supported for 5210 parts.

FreeBSD	9.3			 July 8, 2009			   FreeBSD 9.3

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | HARDWARE | EXAMPLES | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | CAVEATS | BUGS

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