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ATH(4)		       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			ATH(4)

NAME
     ath -- Atheros IEEE 802.11	driver

SYNOPSIS
     device ath
     device ath_hal
     device wlan

DESCRIPTION
     The ath driver provides support for wireless network adapters based on
     the Atheros AR5210, AR5211, and AR5212 chips.  Chip-specific support is
     provided by the Atheros Hardware Access Layer (HAL), that is packaged
     separately.

     Supported features	include	802.11 and 802.3 frames, power management,
     BSS, IBSS,	and host-based access point operation modes.  All host/device
     interaction is via	DMA.

     The ath driver encapsulates all IP	and ARP	traffic	as 802.11 frames, how-
     ever it can receive either	802.11 or 802.3	frames.	 Transmit speed	and
     operating mode is selectable depending on your hardware.  AR5210-based
     devices support 802.11a operation with transmit speeds of 6 Mbps, 9 Mbps,
     12	Mbps, 18 Mbps, 24 Mbps,	36 Mbps, 48 Mbps, and 54 Mbps.	AR5211-based
     devices support 802.11a and 802.11b operation with	transmit speeds	as
     above for 802.11a operation and 1Mbps, 2Mbps, 5.5 Mbps and	11Mbps for
     802.11b operation.	 AR5212-based devices support 802.11a, 802.11b,	and
     802.11g operation with transmit speeds appropriate	to each.  All chips
     also support an Atheros Turbo Mode	(TM) that operates in the 802.11a fre-
     quency range with 2x the transmit speeds.	(This mode is, however,	only
     interoperable with	other Atheros-based devices.)  The actual transmit
     speed used	is dependent on	signal quality and the ``rate control''	algo-
     rithm employed by the driver.  All	chips support WEP encryption.  AR5211
     and AR5212	support	the AES, TKIP, and Michael cryptographic operations
     required for WPA but at this time the driver does not support them.  To
     enable encryption,	use ifconfig(8)	as shown below.

     By	default, the ath driver	configures the card for	BSS operation (aka in-
     frastructure mode).  This mode requires the use of	an access point	(base
     station).

     The ath driver also supports the standard IBSS point-to-point mode	where
     stations can communicate amongst themselves without the aid of an access
     point.

     The driver	may also be configured to operate in hostap mode.  In this
     mode a host may function as an access point (base station).  Access
     points are	different than operating in IBSS mode.	They operate in	BSS
     mode.  They allow for easier roaming and bridge all ethernet traffic such
     that machines connected via an access point appear	to be on the local
     ethernet segment.

     For more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

     Devices supported by the ath driver come in either	Cardbus	or mini-PCI
     packages.	Wireless cards in Cardbus slots	may be inserted	and ejected on
     the fly.

HARDWARE
     The following cards are among those supported by the ath driver:

     Card		  Chip	    Bus	       Standard
     Aztech WL830PC	  AR5212    CardBus    b/g
     D-Link DWL-A650	  AR5210    CardBus    a
     D-Link DWL-AB650	  AR5211    CardBus    a/b
     D-Link DWL-A520	  AR5210    PCI	       a
     D-Link DWL-AG520	  AR5212    PCI	       a/b/g
     D-Link DWL-AG650	  AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     D-Link DWL-G520B	  AR5212    PCI	       b/g
     D-Link DWL-G650B	  AR5212    CardBus    b/g
     Elecom LD-WL54AG	  AR5212    Cardbus    a/b/g
     Elecom LD-WL54	  AR5211    Cardbus    a
     Fujitsu E5454	  AR5212    Cardbus    a/b/g
     Fujitsu FMV-JW481	  AR5212    Cardbus    a/b/g
     Fujitsu E5454	  AR5212    Cardbus    a/b/g
     HP	NC4000		  AR5212    PCI	       a/b/g
     I/O Data WN-AB	  AR5212    CardBus    a/b
     I/O Data WN-AG	  AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     I/O Data WN-A54	  AR5212    CardBus    a
     Linksys WMP55AG	  AR5212    PCI	       a/b/g
     Linksys WPC51AB	  AR5211    CardBus    a/b
     Linksys WPC55AG	  AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     NEC PA-WL/54AG	  AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Netgear WAG311	  AR5212    PCI	       a/b/g
     Netgear WAB501	  AR5211    CardBus    a/b
     Netgear WAG511	  AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Netgear WG311	  AR5212    PCI	       b/g
     Netgear WG311T	  AR5212    PCI	       b/g
     Netgear WG511T	  AR5212    CardBus    b/g
     Orinoco 8480	  AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Orinoco 8470WD	  AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Proxim Skyline 4030  AR5210    CardBus    a
     Proxim Skyline 4032  AR5210    PCI	       a
     Samsung SWL-5200N	  AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     SMC SMC2735W	  AR5210    CardBus    a
     Sony PCWA-C700	  AR5212    Cardbus    a/b
     Sony PCWA-C300S	  AR5212    Cardbus    b/g
     Sony PCWA-C500	  AR5210    Cardbus    a
     3Com 3CRPAG175	  AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g

     An	up to date list	can be found at
     http://customerproducts.atheros.com/customerproducts.

EXAMPLES
     Join an existing BSS network (ie: connect to an access point):

	   ifconfig ath0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00

     Join a specific BSS network with network name ``my_net'':

	   ifconfig ath0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with WEP encryption:

	   ifconfig ath0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   wepmode on wepkey 0x8736639624

     Join/create an 802.11b IBSS network with network name ``my_net'':

	   ifconfig ath0 inet 192.168.0.22 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   mode	11b mediaopt adhoc

     Create an 802.11g host-based access point:

	   ifconfig ath0 inet 192.168.0.10 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap \
		   mode	11g mediaopt hostap

     Create an 802.11a host-based access point with WEP	enabled:

	   ifconfig ath0 inet 192.168.0.10 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap \
		   wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 mode 11a mediaopt hostap

     Create a host-based wireless bridge to fxp0:

	   Add BRIDGE to the kernel config.
	   ifconfig ath0 inet up ssid my_ap media DS/11Mbps mediaopt hostap
	   sysctl net.link.ether.bridge.enable=1
	   sysctl net.link.ether.bridge.config="ath0 fxp0"
	   sysctl net.inet.ip.check_interface=0

     This will give you	the same functionality as an access point.

DIAGNOSTICS
     ath%d: unable to attach hardware; HAL status %u  The Atheros Hardware
     Access Layer was unable to	configure the hardware as requested.  The sta-
     tus code is explained in the HAL include file sys/contrib/dev/ath/ah.h.

     ath%d: failed to allocate descriptors: %d	The driver was unable to allo-
     cate contiguous memory for	the transmit and receive descriptors.  This
     usually indicates system memory is	scarce and/or fragmented.

     ath%d: unable to setup a data xmit	queue!	The request to the HAL to set-
     up	the transmit queue for normal data frames failed.  This	should not
     happen.

     ath%d: unable to setup a beacon xmit queue!  The request to the HAL to
     setup the transmit	queue for 802.11 beacon	frames frames failed.  This
     should not	happen.

     ath%d: 802.11 address: %s	The MAC	address	programmed in the EEPROM is
     displayed.

     ath%d: hardware error; resetting  An unrecoverable	error in the hardware
     occurred.	Errors of this sort include unrecoverable DMA errors.  The
     driver will reset the hardware and	continue.

     ath%d: rx FIFO overrun; resetting	The receive FIFO in the	hardware over-
     flowed before the data could be transferred to the	host.  This typically
     occurs because the	hardware ran short of receive descriptors and had no
     place to transfer received	data.  The driver will reset the hardware and
     continue.

     ath%d: unable to reset hardware; hal status %u  The Atheros Hardware
     Access Layer was unable to	reset the hardware as requested.  The status
     code is explained in the HAL include file sys/contrib/dev/ath/ah.h.  This
     should not	happen.

     ath%d: unable to start recv logic	The driver was unable to restart frame
     reception.	 This should not happen.

     ath%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis-
     sion did not complete in time.  The driver	will reset the hardware	and
     continue.	This should not	happen.

     ath%d: bogus xmit rate 0x%x  An invalid transmit rate was specified for
     an	outgoing frame.	 The frame is discarded.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: ath_chan_set: unable to reset channel %u (%u Mhz)  The Atheros
     Hardware Access Layer was unable to reset the hardware when switching
     channels during scanning.	This should not	happen.

     ath%d: unable to allocate channel table  The driver was unable to allo-
     cate memory for the table used to hold the	set of available channels.

     ath%d: unable to collect channel list from	hal  A problem occurred	while
     querying the HAL to find the set of available channels for	the device.
     This should not happen.

     ath%d: %s:	%dM -> %dM (%d ok, %d err, %d retr)  The driver's rate control
     algorithm changed the current rate	for transmitting frames.  This message
     is	temporarily enabled for	normal use to help in diagnosing and improving
     the rate control algorithm.  The message indicates	the new	and old	trans-
     mit rates and the statistics it used to decide on this change.

     ath%d: failed to enable memory mapping  The driver	was unable to enable
     memory-mapped I/O to the PCI device registers.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: failed to enable bus mastering  The	driver was unable to enable
     the device	as a PCI bus master for	doing DMA.  This should	not happen.

     ath%d: cannot map register	space  The driver was unable to	map the	device
     registers into the	host address space.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: could not map interrupt  The driver	was unable to allocate an IRQ
     for the device interrupt.	This should not	happen.

     ath%d: could not establish	interrupt  The driver was unable to install
     the device	interrupt handler.  This should	not happen.

SEE ALSO
     an(4), arp(4), ath_hal(4),	card(4), netintro(4), pcic(4), wi(4), wlan(4),
     ifconfig(8), wicontrol(8)

HISTORY
     The ath device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 5.2.

CAVEATS
     Different regulatory domains have different default channels for adhoc
     mode.  See	ifconfig(8) for	information on how to change the channel.  See
     wicontrol(8) for information on different regulatory domains.  Different
     regulatory	domains	may not	be able	to communicate with each other with
     802.11a as	different regulatory domains do	not necessarily	have overlap-
     ping channels.

     Revision A1 of the	D-LINK DWL-G520	and DWL-G650 are based on an Intersil
     PrismGT chip and are not supported	by this	driver.

BUGS
     Performance in lossy environments is suboptimal.  The algorithm used to
     select the	rate for transmitted packets is	very simplistic.  There	is no
     software retransmit; only hardware	retransmit is used.  Contributors are
     encouraged	to replace the existing	rate control algorithm with a better
     one (hint:	all the	information needed is available	to the driver).

     The driver	does not fully enable power-save operation of the chip;	conse-
     quently power use is suboptimal.

FreeBSD	9.2			August 26, 2004			   FreeBSD 9.2

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | HARDWARE | EXAMPLES | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | CAVEATS | BUGS

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