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IPXrouted(8)
IPX Routing Information Protocol daemon
ac(8)
connect time accounting
accton(8)
enable/disable system accounting
acpiconf(8)
control ACPI power management
acpidb(8)
ACPI DSDT debugger
acpidump(8)
dump ACPI tables and ASL
adduser(8)
command for adding new users
adduser.conf(5)
adduser(8) configuration file
adjkerntz(8)
adjust local time CMOS clock to reflect time zone changes and keep current timezone offset for the kernel
amd(8)
automatically mount file systems
amd.conf(5)
amd(8) configuration file
amq(8)
automounter query tool
ancontrol(8)
configure Aironet 4500/4800 devices
apm(8)
control the APM BIOS and display its information
arp(8)
address resolution display and control
asf(8)
add symbol files
atacontrol(8)
ATA device driver control program This utility was deprecated in 9.0. See NOTES
ath3kfw(8)
firmware download utility for Atheros AR3011 chip based Bluetooth USB devices
atmconfig(8)
ATM configuration tool
atrun(8)
run jobs queued for later execution
audit(8)
audit management utility
auditd(8)
audit log management daemon
auditdistd(8)
Audit trail files distribution daemon
auditdistd.conf(5)
configuration file for the auditdistd(8) daemon
authpf(8), authpf-noip(8)
authenticating gateway user shell
badsect(8)
create files to contain bad sectors
bcmfw(8)
firmware download utility for Broadcom BCM2033 chip based Bluetooth USB devices
beastie.4th(8)
FreeBSD ASCII art boot module
blackhole(4)
a sysctl(8) MIB for manipulating behaviour in respect of refused TCP or UDP connection attempts
boot(8)
system bootstrapping procedures
boot0cfg(8)
boot manager installation/configuration utility
bootparamd(8)
boot parameter server
bootpd(8), bootpgw(8)
Internet Boot Protocol server/gateway
bootpef(8)
BOOTP Extension File compiler
bootptest(8)
send BOOTP queries and print responses
brand.4th(8)
FreeBSD ASCII art boot module
bsdconfig(8)
system configuration utility
bsdinstall(8)
system installer
bsdlabel(8)
read and write BSD label
bt3cfw(8)
firmware download utility for 3Com Bluetooth PC card driver
bthidcontrol(8)
Bluetooth HID control utility
bthidd(8)
Bluetooth HID daemon
btpand(8)
Bluetooth PAN daemon
btxld(8)
link editor for BTX clients
burncd(8)
control the ATAPI CD-R/RW driver This utility was deprecated in 9.0. See NOTES
camcontrol(8)
CAM control program
ccdconfig(8)
configuration utility for the concatenated disk driver
chat(8)
Automated conversational script with a modem
check-password.4th(8)
FreeBSD password-checking boot module
chkgrp(8)
check the syntax of the group file
chkprintcap(8)
check validity of entries in the print spooler database
chown(8)
change file owner and group
chroot(8)
change root directory
clear_locks(8)
clear locks held on behalf of an NFS client
clri(8)
clear an inode
color.4th(8)
FreeBSD color-detection boot module
comcontrol(8)
control a special tty device
comsat(8)
biff server
config(8)
build system configuration files
conscontrol(8)
control physical console devices
cpucontrol(8)
control utility for the cpuctl(4) device
crash(8)
FreeBSD system failures
crashinfo(8)
analyze a core dump of the operating system
cron(8)
daemon to execute scheduled commands (Vixie Cron)
ctladm(8)
CAM Target Layer control utility
ctlstat(8)
CAM Target Layer statistics utility
cvsbug(8)
send problem report (PR) about CVS to a central support site
daemon(8)
run detached from the controlling terminal
dconschat(8)
user interface to dcons(4)
ddb(8)
configure DDB kernel debugger properties
ddns-confgen(8)
ddns key generation tool
delay.4th(8)
FreeBSD debugging boot module
devd(8)
device state change daemon
devd.conf(5)
configuration file for devd(8)
devfs(8)
DEVFS control
devinfo(8)
print information about system device configuration
dhclient(8)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client
dhclient-script(8)
DHCP client network configuration script
digictl(8)
control Digiboard devices
diskinfo(8)
get information about disk device
diskless(8)
booting a system over the network
dmesg(8)
display the system message buffer
dnssec-dsfromkey(8)
DNSSEC DS RR generation tool
dnssec-keyfromlabel(8)
DNSSEC key generation tool
dnssec-keygen(8)
DNSSEC key generation tool
dnssec-revoke(8)
Set the REVOKED bit on a DNSSEC key
dnssec-settime(8)
Set the key timing metadata for a DNSSEC key
dnssec-signzone(8)
DNSSEC zone signing tool
dnssec-verify(8)
DNSSEC zone verification tool
dump(8), rdump(8)
file system backup
dumpcis(8)
PC Card and Cardbus (PCMCIA) CIS display tool
dumpfs(8)
dump UFS file system information
dumpon(8)
specify a device for crash dumps
editmap(8)
query and edit single records in database maps for sendmail
edquota(8)
edit user quotas
etcupdate(8)
manage updates to system files not updated by installworld
extattrctl(8)
manage UFS1 extended attributes
faithd(8)
FAITH IPv6/v4 translator daemon
fdcontrol(8)
display and modify floppy disk parameters
fdisk(8)
PC slice table maintenance utility
ffsinfo(8)
dump all meta information of an existing ufs file system
fingerd(8)
remote user information server
fixmount(8)
fix remote mount entries
flowctl(8)
ng_netflow(4) control utility
freebsd-update(8)
fetch and install binary updates to FreeBSD
freebsd-update.conf(5)
configuration file for freebsd-update(8)
fsck(8)
file system consistency check and interactive repair
fsck_ffs(8), fsck_ufs(8)
file system consistency check and interactive repair
fsck_msdosfs(8)
DOS/Windows (FAT) file system consistency checker
fsdb(8)
FFS debugging/editing tool
fsinfo(8)
co-ordinate site-wide file system information
fsirand(8)
randomize inode generation numbers
ftp-proxy(8)
Internet File Transfer Protocol proxy daemon
ftpd(8)
Internet File Transfer Protocol server
fwcontrol(8)
FireWire control utility
gbde(8)
operation and management utility for Geom Based Disk Encryption
gcache(8)
control utility for CACHE GEOM class
gconcat(8)
disk concatenation control utility
geli(8)
control utility for cryptographic GEOM class
genrandom(8)
generate a file containing random data
geom(8)
universal control utility for GEOM classes
getextattr(8), lsextattr(8), rmextattr(8), setextattr(8)
manipulate extended attributes
getfmac(8)
print MAC label for a file system object
getpmac(8)
print process-related MAC labels
getty(8)
set terminal mode
ggatec(8)
GEOM Gate network client and control utility
ggated(8)
GEOM Gate network daemon
ggatel(8)
GEOM Gate local control utility
gjournal(8)
control utility for journaled devices
glabel(8)
disk labelization control utility
gmirror(8)
control utility for mirrored devices
gmountver(8)
control utility for disk mount verification GEOM class
gmultipath(8)
disk multipath control utility
gnop(8)
control utility for NOP GEOM class
gpart(8)
control utility for the disk partitioning GEOM class
gpioctl(8)
GPIO control utility
gptboot(8)
GPT bootcode for UFS on BIOS-based computers
graid(8)
control utility for software RAID devices
graid3(8)
control utility for RAID3 devices
grolbp(1)
groff driver for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser printers)
growfs(8)
expand an existing UFS file system
gsched(8)
control utility for disk scheduler GEOM class
gshsec(8)
control utility for shared secret devices
gssd(8)
Generic Security Services Daemon
gstat(8)
print statistics about GEOM disks
gstripe(8)
control utility for striped devices
gvinum(8)
Logical Volume Manager control program
gvirstor(8)
control utility for virtual data storage devices
hast.conf(5)
configuration file for the hastd(8) daemon and the hastctl(8) utility
hastctl(8)
Highly Available Storage control utility
hastd(8)
Highly Available Storage daemon
hccontrol(8)
HCI configuration utility
hcsecd(8)
control link keys and PIN codes for Bluetooth devices
hcsecd.conf(5)
hcsecd(8) configuration file
hcseriald(8)
supervise serial Bluetooth devices
hlfsd(8)
home-link file system daemon
hostapd(8)
authenticator for IEEE 802.11 networks
hostapd.conf(5)
configuration file for hostapd(8) utility
hostapd_cli(8)
text-based frontend program for interacting with hostapd(8)
hprop(8)
propagate the KDC database
hpropd(8)
receive a propagated database
i2c(8)
test I2C bus and slave devices
iasl(8)
Intel ACPI compiler/decompiler
ifconfig(8)
configure network interface parameters
ifmcstat(8)
dump multicast group management statistics per interface
inetd(8)
internet super-server
init(8)
process control initialization
intro(8)
introduction to system maintenance procedures and commands
iostat(8)
report I/O statistics
ip6addrctl(8)
configure address selection policy for IPv6 and IPv4
ipf(8)
alters packet filtering lists for IP packet input and output
ipfs(8)
saves and restores information for NAT and state tables
ipfstat(8)
reports on packet filter statistics and filter list
ipfw(8)
User interface for firewall, traffic shaper, packet scheduler, in-kernel NAT
ipfwpcap(8)
copy diverted packets to a file in tcpdump format
ipmon(8)
monitors /dev/ipl for logged packets
ipnat(8)
user interface to the NAT subsystem
ippool(8)
user interface to the IPFilter pools
isc-hmac-fixup(8)
fixes HMAC keys generated by older versions of BIND
iscontrol(8)
login/negotiator/control for an iSCSI initiator session
jail(8)
manage system jails
jail.conf(5)
configuration file for jail(8)
jexec(8)
execute a command inside an existing jail
jls(8)
list jails
kadmin(8)
Kerberos administration utility
kadmind(8)
server for administrative access to Kerberos database
kcm(8)
is a process based credential cache for Kerberos tickets
kdc(8)
Kerberos 5 server
kerberos(8)
introduction to the Kerberos system
keyserv(8)
server for storing private encryption keys
kgmon(8)
generate a dump of the operating system's profile buffers
kldconfig(8)
display or modify the kernel module search path
kldload(8)
load a file into the kernel
kldstat(8)
display status of dynamic kernel linker
kldunload(8)
unload a file from the kernel
kldxref(8)
generate hints for the kernel loader
kpasswdd(8)
Kerberos 5 password changing server
kstash(8)
store the KDC master password in a file
ktrdump(8)
print kernel ktr trace buffer
ktutil(8)
manage Kerberos keytabs
l2control(8)
L2CAP configuration utility
l2ping(8)
send L2CAP ECHO_REQUEST to remote devices
lastlogin(8)
indicate last login time of users
ldconfig(8)
configure the shared library cache
lmcconfig(8)
configuration program for SBE (formerly LMC) wide-area network interface cards
loader(8)
kernel bootstrapping final stage
loader.4th(8)
loader.conf processing tools
locate.updatedb(8)
update locate database
lpc(8)
line printer control program
lpd(8)
line printer spooler daemon
lptcontrol(8)
a utility for manipulating the lpt printer driver
lwresd(8)
lightweight resolver daemon
mail.local(8)
store mail in a mailbox
mailer.conf(5)
configuration file for mailwrapper(8)
mailstats(8)
display mail statistics
mailwrapper(8)
invoke appropriate MTA software based on configuration file
makefs(8)
create a file system image from a directory tree or a mtree manifest
makemap(8)
create database maps for sendmail
makewhatis.local(8), catman.local(8)
start makewhatis or catman for local file systems
manctl(8)
manipulating manual pages
mdconfig(8)
configure and enable memory disks
mdmfs(8), mount_mfs(8)
configure and mount an in-memory file system using the md(4) driver
memcontrol(8)
control system cache behaviour with respect to memory
menu.4th(8)
FreeBSD dynamic menu boot module
menusets.4th(8)
FreeBSD dynamic submenu boot module
mergemaster(8)
merge configuration files, et al during an upgrade
mfiutil(8)
Utility for managing LSI MegaRAID SAS controllers
mixer(8)
set/display soundcard mixer values
mk-amd-map(8)
create database maps for amd(8)
mknetid(8)
generate netid map data
mknod(8)
build special file
mksnap_ffs(8)
take a file system snapshot
mkulzma(8)
compress disk image for use with geom_uncompress(4) class
mkuzip(8)
compress disk image for use with geom_uzip(4) class
mld6query(8)
send multicast listener query
mlxcontrol(8)
Mylex DAC-family RAID management utility
mount(8)
mount file systems
mount.conf(8)
root file system mount configuration file
mount_cd9660(8)
mount an ISO-9660 file system
mount_msdosfs(8)
mount an MS-DOS file system
mount_nfs(8)
mount NFS file systems
mount_ntfs(8)
mount an NTFS file system
mount_nullfs(8)
mount a loopback file system sub-tree; demonstrate the use of a null file system layer
mount_nwfs(8)
mount NetWare volume from a NetWare file server
mount_portalfs(8)
mount the portal daemon
mount_smbfs(8)
mount a shared resource from an SMB file server
mount_udf(8)
mount a UDF file system
mount_unionfs(8)
mount union file systems
mountd(8)
service remote NFS mount requests
moused(8)
pass mouse data to the console driver
mptutil(8)
Utility for managing LSI Fusion-MPT controllers
mtest(8)
test multicast socket operations
mtree(8)
map a directory hierarchy
named(8)
Internet domain name server
named-checkconf(8)
named configuration file syntax checking tool
named-checkzone(8), named-compilezone(8)
zone file validity checking or converting tool
named-journalprint(8)
print zone journal in human-readable form
nanobsd(8), nanobsd.sh(8)
utility used to create a FreeBSD system image suitable for embedded applications
natd(8)
Network Address Translation daemon
ndis_events(8)
relay events from ndis(4) drivers to wpa_supplicant(8)
ndiscvt(8)
convert Windows[rg] NDIS drivers for use with FreeBSD
ndisgen(8)
generate a FreeBSD driver module from a Windows[rg] NDIS driver distribution
ndp(8)
control/diagnose IPv6 neighbor discovery protocol
newfs(8)
construct a new UFS1/UFS2 file system
newfs_msdos(8)
construct a new MS-DOS (FAT) file system
newkey(8)
create a new key in the publickey database
newsyslog(8)
maintain system log files to manageable sizes
newsyslog.conf(5)
newsyslog(8) configuration file
nextboot(8)
specify an alternate kernel and boot flags for the next reboot
nfscbd(8)
NFSv4 client side callback daemon
nfsd(8)
remote NFS server
nfsdumpstate(8)
display NFSv4 open/lock state
nfsiod(8)
local NFS asynchronous I/O server
nfsrevoke(8)
revoke NFS V4 client
nfsuserd(8)
load user and group information into the kernel for NFSv4 services
ngctl(8)
netgraph control utility
nghook(8)
connect to a netgraph(4) node
nologin(8)
politely refuse a login
nos-tun(8)
implement ``nos'' or ``ka9q'' style IP over IP tunnel
nscd(8)
name service caching daemon
nsec3hash(8)
generate NSEC3 hash
ntp-keygen(8)
key generation program for ntpd
ntpd(8)
Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon
ntpdate(8)
set the date and time via NTP
ntpdc(8)
special NTP query program
ntpq(8)
standard NTP query program
ntptime(8)
read kernel time variables
nvmecontrol(8)
NVM Express control utility
pac(8)
printer/plotter accounting information
pam_chroot(8)
Chroot PAM module
pam_deny(8)
Deny PAM module
pam_echo(8)
Echo PAM module
pam_exec(8)
Exec PAM module
pam_ftpusers(8)
ftpusers PAM module
pam_group(8)
Group PAM module
pam_guest(8)
Guest PAM module
pam_krb5(8)
Kerberos 5 PAM module
pam_ksu(8)
Kerberos 5 SU PAM module
pam_lastlog(8)
login accounting PAM module
pam_login_access(8)
login.access PAM module
pam_nologin(8)
NoLogin PAM module
pam_opie(8)
OPIE PAM module
pam_opieaccess(8)
OPIEAccess PAM module
pam_passwdqc(8)
Password quality-control PAM module
pam_permit(8)
Promiscuous PAM module
pam_radius(8)
RADIUS authentication PAM module
pam_rhosts(8)
Rhosts PAM module
pam_rootok(8)
RootOK PAM module
pam_securetty(8)
SecureTTY PAM module
pam_self(8)
Self PAM module
pam_ssh(8)
authentication and session management with SSH private keys
pam_tacplus(8)
TACACS+ authentication PAM module
pam_unix(8)
UNIX PAM module
pc-sysinstall(8)
System installer backend
pciconf(8)
diagnostic utility for the PCI bus
periodic(8)
run periodic system functions
pfctl(8)
control the packet filter (PF) device
pflogd(8)
packet filter logging daemon
picobsd(8)
building small FreeBSD disk images
ping(8)
send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
ping6(8)
send ICMPv6 ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
pmcannotate(8)
sources printout with inlined profiling
pmccontrol(8)
control hardware performance monitoring counters
pmcstat(8)
performance measurement with performance monitoring hardware
portsnap(8)
fetch and extract compressed snapshots of the ports tree
portsnap.conf(5)
configuration file for portsnap(8)
powerd(8)
system power control utility
ppp(8)
Point to Point Protocol (a.k.a. user-ppp)
pppctl(8)
PPP control program
pppoed(8)
handle incoming PPP over Ethernet connections
praliases(8)
display system mail aliases
procctl(8)
clear procfs event flags
pstat(8), swapinfo(8)
display system data structures
pw(8)
create, remove, modify & display system users and groups
pwd_mkdb(8)
generate the password databases
pxeboot(8)
Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) bootloader
quot(8)
display disk space occupied by each user
quotacheck(8)
file system quota consistency checker
quotaon(8), quotaoff(8)
turn file system quotas on and off
rarpd(8)
reverse ARP daemon
rbootd(8)
HP remote boot server
rc(4)
RISCom/8 multiport card
rc(8)
command scripts for auto-reboot and daemon startup
rc.sendmail(8)
sendmail(8) startup script
rc.subr(8)
functions used by system shell scripts
rcorder(8)
print a dependency ordering of interdependent files
rctl(8)
display and update resource limits database
reboot(8), halt(8), fastboot(8), fasthalt(8)
stopping and restarting the system
renice(8)
alter priority of running processes
repquota(8)
summarize quotas for a file system
rescue(8)
rescue utilities in /rescue
resolvconf(8)
a framework for managing multiple DNS configurations
restore(8), rrestore(8)
restore files or file systems from backups made with dump
revnetgroup(8)
generate reverse netgroup data
rfcomm_pppd(8)
RFCOMM PPP daemon
rip6query(8)
RIPng debugging tool
rlogind(8)
remote login server
rmail(8)
handle remote mail received via uucp
rmt(8)
remote magtape protocol module
rmuser(8)
remove users from the system
rndc(8)
name server control utility
rndc-confgen(8)
rndc key generation tool
route(8)
manually manipulate the routing tables
route6d(8)
RIP6 Routing Daemon
routed(8), rdisc(8)
network RIP and router discovery routing daemon
rpc.lockd(8)
NFS file locking daemon
rpc.rquotad(8)
remote quota server
rpc.rstatd(8)
kernel statistics server
rpc.rusersd(8)
logged in users server
rpc.rwalld(8)
write messages to users currently logged in server
rpc.sprayd(8)
spray server
rpc.statd(8)
host status monitoring daemon
rpc.umntall(8)
notify NFS servers about unmounted NFS file systems
rpc.yppasswdd(8)
server for updating NIS passwords
rpc.ypxfrd(8)
NIS map transfer server
rpcbind(8)
universal addresses to RPC program number mapper
rpcinfo(8)
report RPC information
rrenumd(8)
router renumbering daemon
rshd(8)
remote shell server
rtadvctl(8)
control program for rtadvd(8) daemon
rtadvd(8)
router advertisement daemon
rtquery(8)
query routing daemons for their routing tables
rtsold(8), rtsol(8)
router solicitation daemon
rwhod(8)
system status server
sa(8)
print system accounting statistics
sade(8)
sysadmins disk editor
savecore(8)
save a core dump of the operating system
sdpcontrol(8)
SDP query utility
sdpd(8)
Bluetooth Service Discovery Protocol daemon
sendmail(8)
an electronic mail transport agent
service(8)
control (start/stop/etc.) or list system services
services_mkdb(8)
generate the services database
setfmac(8)
set MAC label for a file system object
setfsmac(8)
set MAC label for a file hierarchy
setkey(8)
manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database
setpmac(8)
run a command with a different MAC process label
sftp-server(8)
SFTP server subsystem
showmount(8)
show remote nfs mounts on host
shutdown(8), poweroff(8)
close down the system at a given time
sicontrol(8)
Specialix SI/XIO driver configuration and debugging
smbmsg(8)
send or receive messages over an SMBus
smrsh(8)
restricted shell for sendmail
snapinfo(8)
show snapshot location on UFS file systems
snmp_hostres(3)
host resources module for bsnmpd(8)
spkrtest(8)
test script for the speaker driver
spppcontrol(8)
display or set parameters for an sppp interface
spray(8)
send many packets to host
ssh-keysign(8)
ssh helper program for host-based authentication
ssh-pkcs11-helper(8)
ssh-agent helper program for PKCS#11 support
sshd(8)
OpenSSH SSH daemon
swapon(8), swapoff(8), swapctl(8)
specify devices for paging and swapping
sync(8)
force completion of pending disk writes (flush cache)
syncache(4), syncookies(4)
sysctl(8) MIBs for controlling TCP SYN caching
sysctl(8)
get or set kernel state
sysinstall(8)
system installation and configuration tool
syslog.conf(5)
syslogd(8) configuration file
syslogd(8)
log systems messages
sysrc(8)
safely edit system rc files
talkd(8)
remote user communication server
tcpd(8)
access control facility for internet services
tcpdchk(8)
tcp wrapper configuration checker
tcpdmatch(8)
tcp wrapper oracle
tcpdrop(8)
drop TCP connections
telnetd(8)
DARPA TELNET protocol server
tftp-proxy(8)
Internet Trivial File Transfer Protocol proxy
tftpd(8)
Internet Trivial File Transfer Protocol server
timed(8)
time server daemon
timedc(8)
timed control program
traceroute(8)
print the route packets take to network host
traceroute6(8)
print the route IPv6 packets will take to a network node
trpt(8)
transliterate protocol trace
tunefs(8)
tune up an existing UFS file system
tzsetup(8)
set local timezone
uathload(8)
firmware loader for Atheros USB wireless driver
ugidfw(8)
firewall-like access controls for file system objects
umount(8)
unmount file systems
usbconfig(8)
configure the USB subsystem
usbdump(8)
dump traffic on USB host controller
utf8(5)
UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646
utxrm(8)
remove sessions from the user accounting database
verify_krb5_conf(8)
checks krb5.conf for obvious errors
version.4th(8)
FreeBSD version string boot module
vipw(8)
edit the password file
vmstat(8)
report virtual memory statistics
wake(8)
send Wake on LAN frames to hosts on a local Ethernet network
watch(8)
snoop on another tty line
watchdog(8)
watchdog control program
watchdogd(8)
watchdog daemon
wire-test(8)
test your network interfaces and local IP address
wlandebug(8)
set/query 802.11 wireless debugging messages
wpa_cli(8)
text-based frontend program for interacting with wpa_supplicant
wpa_passphrase(8)
utility for generating a 256-bit pre-shared WPA key from an ASCII passphrase
wpa_supplicant(8)
WPA/802.11i Supplicant for wireless network devices
wpa_supplicant.conf(5)
configuration file for wpa_supplicant(8)
yp(8)
description of the YP/NIS system
yp_mkdb(8)
generate the NIS databases
ypbind(8)
NIS domain binding daemon
ypinit(8)
build and install NIS databases
yppoll(8)
ask version of YP map from YP server
yppush(8)
force propagation of updated NIS databases
ypserv(8)
NIS database server
ypset(8)
tell ypbind(8) which YP server process to use
ypxfr(8)
transfer NIS database from remote server to local host
zdb(8)
Display zpool debugging and consistency information
zdump(8)
timezone dumper
zfs(8)
configures ZFS file systems
zic(8)
timezone compiler
zpool(8)
configures ZFS storage pools
zzz(8)
suspend an ACPI or APM system
d2i_PKCS8PrivateKey_bio(3), d2i_PKCS8PrivateKey_fp(3), i2d_PKCS8PrivateKey_bio(3), i2d_PKCS8PrivateKey_fp(3), i2d_PKCS8PrivateKey_nid_bio(3), i2d_PKCS8PrivateKey_nid_fp(3)
PKCS#8 format private key functions
pkcs8(1)
PKCS#8 format private key conversion tool
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